Totila (birth name, Baduila-Badua r. 541-552 CE) was the last great king of the Ostrogoths in Italy. He was the nephew of the Gothic king Ildibad who was succeeded by Eraric the Rugian (d. 541 CE). The Goths of Italy felt that Eraric was...
Tamar was the queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213 CE. She is considered one of the greatest of medieval Georgia's monarchs, and she presided over its greatest territorial expansion, taking advantage of the decline of other major powers in...
Saint Cyril (aka Kyrillos and Constantine the Philosopher, d. 867 CE) was a Byzantine linguist, teacher, scholar and missionary who famously preached Christianity to the Slavs in Moravia with his brother Methodius during the 9th century CE...
Samo (reigned 623/624-658 CE) was a king of the Slavs who was responsible for the foundation of the first recorded political entity of the Slavic people, usually referred to as Samo's Empire. Since writing was not introduced into Slavic culture...
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
The Crusades were a series of military campaigns organised by Christian powers in order to retake Jerusalem and the Holy Land back from Muslim control. There would be eight officially sanctioned crusades between 1095 CE and 1270 CE and many...
Mehmed II Conquering Constantinople
Mehmed II conquering Constantinople, oil on canvas painting by Fausto Zonaro, 1903. Dolmabahçe Palace, Istanbul.
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul
Hagia Sophia was built as a church by Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles who were chosen as architects by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian. Hagia Sophia (meaning "holy wisdom") was completed in 537 BCE and was transformed into a mosque...
A 15th century CE portrait by G. Bellini of Mehmed II (r. 1451-1481 CE), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and conqueror of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
Hagia Sophia Interior
The interior of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. It was built in 532-537 CE during the reign of Justinian I on the site of two more modest versions dating back to the 4th century CE.
A restored section of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, completed c. 413 CE.