Leo I was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 457 to 474 CE. He was also known as “Leo the Butcher” (Makelles) for the assassination of his patron and rival Aspar. Although his reign was lacklustre and included a serious defeat...
Michael Psellos (1018 - c. 1082 CE) was a Byzantine historian, writer, and intellectual. Michael acted as courtier and advisor to several Byzantine emperors, and he was the tutor of Michael VII. Writing between 1042 and 1078 CE, his texts...
Trdat the Architect
“Trdat the Architect” or Tiridates (c. 940s-c. 1020s?) was a Armenian architect who is noted for his role in the reconstruction of the Hagia Sophia's dome in Constantinople following an earthquake in the 10th century CE, as well...
Constantine X Doukas
Constantine X Doukas was the ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 1059 to 1067 CE. During his reign, the Byzantine Empire was attacked by emerging enemies on all sides, including the Normans in Italy and the Seljuk Turks in Armenia and Anatolia...
The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium
Germanic influence reigned in the Roman Empire from the end of the 4th century CE through the 5th. Germanic individuals took important posts in the government and the military, and Germanic tribes penetrated ever further into lands that had...
Plagues of the Near East 562-1486 CE
Disease has been a part of the human condition since the beginning of recorded history – and no doubt earlier – decimating populations and causing widespread social upheaval. Among the worst infections recorded is the plague which...
Painting of Hagia Sophia
An artist's depiction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, as it may have appeared in 537 CE. From the game Old World.
Mosaic with the Virgin Mary, Constantine and Justinian, Hagia Sophia
Mosaic panel located at the southwestern entrance of the basilica Hagia Sophia (Istanbul) depicting the emperor Constantine I holding a model of the city of Constantinople (right), the emperor Justinian I holding a model of Hagia Sophia (left...
The Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Despite an army of 60,000 and the presence...
The city of Mystras (or Mistras) in southern Greece was the provincial capital of the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea from the 13th through the 15th centuries CE. It was founded in 1249 CE by William II of Villehadouin, and it served as...