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Virtual autopsy: exploring a natural mummy from early Egypt
Videoby britishmuseum

Virtual autopsy: exploring a natural mummy from early Egypt

The life and death of Gebelein Man Found in around 1896, the mummy known as Gebelein man was buried in about 3500 BC at the site of Gebelein in Upper Egypt. He has been in the British Museum collection for over 100 years, but it was not...
Achaemenid Empire
Definitionby Peter Davidson

Achaemenid Empire

East of the Zagros Mountains, a high plateau stretches off towards India. While Egypt was rising up against the Hyksos, a wave of pastoral tribes from north of the Caspian Sea was drifting down into this area and across into India. By the...
Facial Reconstructions of Roman Emperors
Imageby Daniel Voshart

Facial Reconstructions of Roman Emperors

A poster with facial reconstructions of Roman emperors who ruled during the Principate, from the reign of Augustus (r. 27 BCE-14 CE) to Carinus (r. 283-285 CE). These photorealistic reconstructions are only best guesses at how their subjects...
The Mongol Invasions of Japan, 1274 & 1281 CE
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Mongol Invasions of Japan, 1274 & 1281 CE

The Mongol invasions of Japan took place in 1274 and 1281 CE when Kublai Khan (r. 1260-1294 CE) sent two huge fleets from Korea and China. In both cases, the Japanese, and especially the samurai warriors, vigorously defended their shores...
Love, Sex, & Marriage in Ancient Rome
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Love, Sex, & Marriage in Ancient Rome

Love, sex, and marriage in ancient Rome were defined by the patriarchy. The head of the household was the father (the pater familias) who had complete control over the lives of his wife, children, and slaves. This paradigm was justified...
Mali Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (1240-1645) of West Africa was founded by Sundiata Keita (r. 1230-1255) following his victory over the kingdom of Sosso (c. 1180-1235). Sundiata's centralised government, diplomacy and well-trained army permitted a massive...
Roman Roads
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Roman Roads

The Romans built roads over ancient routes and created a huge number of new ones. Engineers were audacious in their plans to join one point to another in as direct a line as possible whatever the difficulties in geography and costs. Consequently...
Songhai Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (aka Songhay, c. 1460 - c. 1591) replaced the Mali Empire (1240-1645) as the most important state in West Africa (covering modern southern Mauritania and Mali). Originating as a smaller kingdom along the eastern bend of...
Ghana Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ghana Empire

The Ghana Empire flourished in West Africa from at least the 6th to 13th century CE. Not connected geographically to the modern state of Ghana, the Ghana Empire was located in the western Sudan savannah region (modern southern Mauritania...
Roman Games, Chariot Races & Spectacle
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Roman Games, Chariot Races & Spectacle

If there was one thing the Roman people loved it was spectacle and the opportunity of escapism offered by weird and wonderful public shows which assaulted the senses and ratcheted up the emotions. Roman rulers knew this well and so to increase...