Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England ruled as king from 1485 to 1509 CE. Henry, representing the Lancaster cause during the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE), defeated and killed his predecessor the Yorkist king Richard III of England (r. 1483-1485 CE) at...
Ptolemaic Dynasty in Ancient Egypt
We have prepared one lesson plan including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Open questions adaptable for debates, presentations, and essays Recommended resources to provide you and your students with...
Constantine VII was Byzantine emperor from 945 until 959 CE. Sometimes known as Constantine Porphyrogennetos because of his birth in the purple chamber of the royal palace, he was served by various regents from 912 CE until reigning in his...
Relief of Cleopatra VII and Caesarion at the Dendera Temple
This relief from one of the walls of the Dendera Temple in Egypt portrays Cleopatra VII along with her son Caesarion as Pharaoh. Cleopatra had intended for her son to succeed her as ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom, however her defeat at the...
Elizabeth Taylor as Cleopatra VII
The iconic cinematic performance of Elizabeth Taylor in the motion picture Cleopatra (1963) left a lasting impression of the Egyptian queen’s supposed beauty. Despite its emphatic opulence, the movie still implies that Cleopatra could only...
Portrait of Cleopatra VII
A posthumous portrait of Cleopatra VII. The portrait dates to the 1st century CE and was found at Herculaneum, preserved from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. It is housed at the National Archaeological Museum of Naples.
Silver Tetradrachm Portraying Antony and Cleopatra
This silver tetradrachm portrays the Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII on one side, and the Roman triumvir Mark Antony on the other (1st century BCE). Cleopatra's profile has been made to resemble the features of her husband Mark Antony in the...
Women in Ancient Egypt
One of the central values of ancient Egyptian civilization, arguably the central value, was ma'at - the concept of harmony and balance in all aspects of one's life. This ideal was the most important duty observed by the pharaoh who, as mediator...
Mural of Cleopatra and Caesarion as Venus and Cupid
This mid-1st Century BCE mural portrays a statue of Venus and the infant Cupid in the Temple of Venus Genitrix, Rome. The statue has been identified as the infamous gilded statue of Cleopatra VII as Venus that Julius Caesar unveiled during...
The Second Triumvirate was a political association of convenience between three of Rome's most powerful figures: Mark Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian in the 1st century BCE. Following the assassination of Julius Caesar the three vowed revenge...