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Ancient Egyptian Culture
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Culture

Ancient Egyptian culture flourished between c. 6000 BCE with the rise of technology (as evidenced in the glasswork of faience) and 30 BCE with the death of Cleopatra VII, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt. It is famous today for the great...
Battles of the Roman Republic
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Battles of the Roman Republic

In this collection we look at some of the most significant battles that shaped the history of the Roman Republic. There were defeats such as at Allia River to the Celts in 390 BCE or at Cannae in 216 BCE when the Carthaginians led by Hannibal...
Tigranes the Great
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Tigranes the Great

Tigranes II or Tigranes the Great ruled as the king of Armenia from c. 95 to c. 56 BCE. Expanding in all directions, at its peak, Tigranes' Armenian Empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. Not before or since would Armenians...
Tigranocerta
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Tigranocerta

Tigranocerta (Tigranakert) was a city in the southwest of ancient Armenia founded and made capital by Tigranes the Great in 83 BCE. Famous for its riches and fine buildings, as well as its mix of Hellenistic and Persian culture, the city...
Pirates of the Mediterranean
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Pirates of the Mediterranean

The pirates of the ancient Mediterranean were not, for the most part, the outsiders who knew no country's allegiance and were the enemies of civilization as they are frequently depicted in novels and other media. They were often employed...
Wine Culture in the Hellenistic Mediterranean
Articleby Branko van Oppen

Wine Culture in the Hellenistic Mediterranean

The culture of drinking wine was enjoyed throughout the Mediterranean world, and what is true now was true in antiquity, too: wine is always good business. The Hellenistic Period (c. 335-30 BCE), between Alexander the Great and Cleopatra...
English Reformation
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

English Reformation

The English Reformation began with Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE) and continued in stages over the rest of the 16th century CE. The process witnessed the break away from the Catholic Church headed by the Pope in Rome. The Protestant...
British Crown Jewels
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

British Crown Jewels

The Crown Jewels of the monarchy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland are today kept in the Tower of London and date mostly to the 17th century CE, with a few later sparkling additions such as the Koh-i-Noor and Cullinan...
Albigensian Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Albigensian Crusade

The Albigensian Crusade (aka Cathars' Crusade, 1209-1229 CE), was the first crusade to specifically target heretic Christians - the Cathars of southern France. Not successful in repressing the heresy, the on-off campaigns over two decades...
James IV of Scotland
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

James IV of Scotland

James IV of Scotland ruled as king from 1488 to 1513 CE. He succeeded his father James III of Scotland (r. 1460-1488 CE) and became one of the most popular of the Stuart kings. James sought to apply justice in every corner of his realm, he...
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