Roman warfare was remarkably successful over many centuries and across many territories. This was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked, there was a huge pool of fighting men to draw upon, a disciplined...
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
The popular view of life in ancient Egypt is often that it was a death-obsessed culture in which powerful pharaohs forced the people to labor at constructing pyramids and temples and, at an unspecified time, enslaved the Hebrews for this...
Efficy of Pope Gregory VII
Wax effigy of Pope Gregory VII (c. 1015-1085). Cathedral of Salerno, Italy.
Pope Gregory VII, Pitigliano Cathedral
Stained glass window of Pope Gregory VII (1015-1085) at the Pitigliano Cathedral, Italy.
Ten Ancient Egypt Facts You Need to Know
Ancient Egypt is defined as the civilization which flourished in North Africa between c. 6000-30 BCE – from the Predynastic Period in Egypt (c. 6000 - c. 3150 BCE) through the Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE) before Egypt became a province...
Roman emperors ruled over the Imperial Roman Empire starting with Augustus from 27 BCE and continuing in the Western Roman Empire until the late 5th century CE and in the Eastern Roman Empire up to the mid-15th century CE. The emperors would...
The Assassination of Julius Caesar
Veni, vidi, vici! This was the simple message the Roman commander Julius Caesar sent to the Senate in Rome after a resounding victory in the east against King Pharnaces of Pontus - a message that demonstrated both arrogance as well as great...
Herod the Great
Herod I, or Herod the Great (c. 75 – 4 BCE), was the king of Judea who ruled as a client of Rome. He has gained lasting infamy as the 'slaughterer of the innocents' as recounted in the New Testament's book of Mathew. Herod was, though...
Aytap is the modern name for the ancient city of Iotapa (sometimes given as Iotape and Iotape Philadelphos) in Cilicia. The city's ruins are located in southern Turkey near modern day Alanya (ancient Coracesium). The city was founded in 52...
Marble Bust of Juba II
An early 1st Century marble bust of Juba II (r. 29 BCE - 23 CE), king of Mauretania and husband of Cleopatra Selene II (40 - 5 BCE). The bust is in the Glyptotek Museum in Copenhagen.