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The Christian Concept of Human Sexuality as Sin
Articleby Rebecca Denova

The Christian Concept of Human Sexuality as Sin

In the ancient world, human sexuality was crucial for the survival of the tribe and clan as well as pleasurable, a gift from the gods. Thousands of native cults emphasized fertility through rituals and prayers, and ancient gods were depicted...
Kingdom of Northumbria
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kingdom of Northumbria

The Kingdom of Northumbria (c. 604-954 CE) was a political entity in the north of modern-day Britain with Mercia directly to the south, the Kingdoms of the Welsh to the west, and the land of the Picts to the north; the eastern line of the...
Roman Religion
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Religion

In many societies, ancient and modern, religion has performed a major role in their development, and the Roman Empire was no different. From the beginning Roman religion was polytheistic. From an initial array of gods and spirits, Rome added...
Mesrop Mashtots
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mesrop Mashtots

Mesrop Mashtots (360/370 - c. 440 CE) invented the Armenian alphabet in 405 CE. Besides greatly increasing levels of literacy in the country, the language permitted ordinary people to read the Bible for the first time, thus helping to further...
Saint Gall
Definitionby James Blake Wiener

Saint Gall

Saint Gall (c. 550 - c. 645 CE), also known as Saint Gallus, was an Irish monk who lived in what is present-day Switzerland during the 6th century CE and was one of twelve companions of Saint Columbanus' Christian mission to the European...
The Origin of Satan
Articleby Rebecca Denova

The Origin of Satan

Satan, or the Devil, is one of the best-known characters in the Western traditions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Surprisingly, this entity was a late-comer in the ancient world. Satan, as a totally evil being, is nowhere to be found...
Antonine Plague
Definitionby John Horgan

Antonine Plague

The Antonine Plague, sometimes referred to as the Plague of Galen, erupted in 165 CE, at the height of Roman power throughout the Mediterranean world during the reign of the last of the Five Good Emperors, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (161-180...
Flavius Josephus
Definitionby Rebecca Denova

Flavius Josephus

Titus Flavius Josephus (36-100 CE), was born Yosef ben Matityahu and became a 1st-century CE Jewish historian. He was a member of a priestly household in Jerusalem through his father’s side (the house and order of Jehoiarib), and his mother...
The Life of Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospels
Articleby Rebecca Denova

The Life of Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospels

The only sources for the life of Jesus of Nazareth are in the canonical gospels (or the gospels that were included in the authorised version of the New Testament). We have no contemporary, eyewitness testimony from the time that he lived...
Historical Problems in the Trial(s) & Crucifixion in the Gospels
Articleby Rebecca Denova

Historical Problems in the Trial(s) & Crucifixion in the Gospels

The story of the trial and crucifixion of Jesus Christ is reenacted every year by Christians all over the world in the Easter liturgy. The story has become an essential article of faith and is rarely questioned by New Testament scholars and...