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The Early Three Kingdoms Period
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Early Three Kingdoms Period

The Early Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China, from 184 CE to 190 CE for the purposes of this article, was one of the most turbulent in China's history. With an ailing Han government unable to control its empire, brutal localised wars...
Ancient China - A Collection of Culture
Image Galleryby Emily Mark

Ancient China - A Collection of Culture

In this gallery, we showcase some of China's historical landmarks. China is one of the oldest cultures in the world, beginning over 7000 years ago with the Chinese "Cradle of Civilization" in the Yellow River Valley of Henan Province. Among...
Mandate of Heaven
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven (Tianming), also known as Heaven's Mandate, was the divine source of authority and the right to rule of China's early kings and emperors. The ancient god or divine force known as Heaven or Sky had selected this particular...
Confucianism
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Confucianism

Confucianism is a philosophy developed in 6th-century BCE China, which is considered by some a secular-humanist belief system, by some a religion, and by others a social code. The broad range of subjects touched on by Confucianism lends itself...
Yongle Emperor
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (aka Chengzu or Yung Lo, r. 1403-1424 CE) was the third ruler of the Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 CE). Inheriting a stable state thanks to the work of his father, the Hongwu Emperor (r. 1368-1398 CE), Yongle made lasting...
Shang Dynasty
Definitionby Emily Mark

Shang Dynasty

The Shang Dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BCE) was the second dynasty of China, which succeeded the Xia Dynasty (c. 2700-1600 BCE) after the overthrow of the Xia tyrant Jie by the Shang leader, Tang. Since many historians question whether the Xia Dynasty...
Mulan: The Legend Through History
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Mulan: The Legend Through History

Mulan (“magnolia”) is a legendary character in Chinese literature who is best known in the modern day from the Disney filmed adaptations (1998, 2020). Her story, however, about a young girl who takes her father's place in the army to help...
Roman Artillery
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Roman Artillery

Roman artillery weapons were instrumental in the successes of the Roman army over centuries and were especially used in siege warfare, both for offence and defence. Principally used in fixed positions or onboard ships, these machines, known...
Warring States Period
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Warring States Period

The Warring States period (481/403 BCE - 221 BCE) describes the three centuries when various rival Chinese states battled viciously for territorial advantage and dominance. Ultimately the Qin state was victorious and established the first...
Paper in Ancient China
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Paper in Ancient China

The widespread use of paper and printing were features of ancient China which distinguished it from other ancient cultures. Traditionally, paper was invented in the early 2nd century CE, but there is evidence it was much earlier. As a cheaper...
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