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Coin of Justinian II
Imageby Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Coin of Justinian II

A gold coin of Byzantine emperor Justinian II (r. 685-95 & 705-11 CE). This example is from his second reign. (Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com)
Corpus Juris Civilis
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Corpus Juris Civilis

The Justinian Code or Corpus Juris Civilis (Corpus of Civil Law) was a major reform of Byzantine law created by Emperor Justinian I (r. 527-565 CE) in 528-9 CE. Aiming to clarify and update the old Roman laws, eradicate inconsistencies and...
Teng Shih
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Teng Shih

Teng Shih (l. c. 500 BCE) was a Chinese Sophist and lawyer who lived and wrote in the province of Cheng (Pengcheng, modern-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu province) during the era of the Spring and Autumn Period (c. 772-476 BCE) which preceded the Warring...
Egyptian Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Empire

The Egyptian Empire rose during the period of the New Kingdom (c. 1570- c. 1069 BCE), when the country reached its height of wealth, international prestige, and military might. The empire stretched from modern-day Syria in the north to modern-day...
Varangian Guard
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Varangian Guard

The mercenary Varangian Guard was an elite Byzantine army corps and the personal bodyguard of emperors beginning with Basil II in c. 988 CE. The Viking unit was famous for the stature of its members and their blood-thirsty conduct in battle...
Byzantine Jeweled Bracelet
Imageby Metropolitan Museum of Art

Byzantine Jeweled Bracelet

Dating to 500-700 CE, this gold bracelet is elaborately decorated with silver, pearls, amethyst, sapphire, glass and quartz. The interior features opus interrasile patterns. Overall, it measures 3.8 x 8.2 cm; the strap measures 2.3 x 19.5...
Islamic Caliphates
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Islamic Caliphates

Caliphate (“Khilafat” in Arabic) was a semi-religious political system of governance in Islam, in which the territories of the Islamic empire in the Middle East and North Africa and the people within were ruled by a supreme leader called...
Alboin
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Alboin

Alboin (r. 560-572 CE) was a king of the Lombards who led his people into Italy and founded the Kingdom of the Lombards which lasted from 568-774 CE. His father was Audoin, King of the Lombards, and his mother Queen Rodelinda. He was most...
Government & Society in Feudal Japan
Worksheet/Activityby Marion Wadowski

Government & Society in Feudal Japan

This activity has been designed to fit a 30-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching, as well as homeschooling. Students have to read one article (also available in an audio format) in order to...
House of Burgesses
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

House of Burgesses

The House of Burgesses (1619-1776 CE) was the first English representative government in North America, established in July 1619 CE, for the purpose of passing laws and maintaining order in the Jamestown Colony of Virginia and the other settlements...
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