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The Byzantine Empire c. 1090 CE
Imageby Spiridon MANOLIU

The Byzantine Empire c. 1090 CE

A map of the Byzantine empire at the end of the 11th century CE prior to the First Crusade.
Second Crusade
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Second Crusade

The Second Crusade (1147-1149 CE) was a military campaign organised by the Pope and European nobles to recapture the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia which had fallen in 1144 CE to the Muslim Seljuk Turks. Despite an army of 60,000 and the presence...
Varangian Guard
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Varangian Guard

The mercenary Varangian Guard was an elite Byzantine army corps and the personal bodyguard of emperors beginning with Basil II in c. 988 CE. The Viking unit was famous for the stature of its members and their blood-thirsty conduct in battle...
Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past
Articleby Haleh Brooks

Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past

In the early days of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), the kings came to realise that, if they were to be able to administer the vast mass of land and the multicultural people who inhabited it, they had to create an organizational system...
Oyo Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Oyo Empire

The Oyo Empire flourished from the 17th to 19th century CE in what is today southwest Nigeria. The Oyo forged an empire thanks to their formidable cavalry units and so came to dominate other Yoruba peoples of the region. The Oyo Empire, with...
Mamikonian Dynasty
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mamikonian Dynasty

The Mamikonians were a powerful clan group who were influential in Armenian political and military affairs from the 1st century BCE onwards. They rose to particular prominence from c. 428 CE to 652 CE in the half of Armenia ruled by the Sasanian...
The Rise and Fall of the Byzantine Empire - Leonora Neville
Videoby TED-Ed

The Rise and Fall of the Byzantine Empire - Leonora Neville

Check out our Patreon page: https://www.patreon.com/teded View full lesson: https://ed.ted.com/lessons/the-rise-and-fall-of-the-byzantine-empire-leonora-neville Most history books will tell you that the Roman Empire fell in the fifth...
Golden Horde
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Golden Horde

The Golden Horde was the European appanage of the Mongol Empire (1206-1368 CE). Begun in earnest by Batu Khan in 1227 CE, the territory that would eventually become the Golden Horde came to encompass parts of Central Asia, much of Russia...
Ctesiphon
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ctesiphon

Ctesiphon was an ancient city and trade center on the east bank of the Tigris River founded during the reign of Mithridates I (the Great, 171-132 BCE). It is best known in the modern day for the single-span arch, Taq Kasra, which is the most...
Avars
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Avars

The Avars were a confederation of heterogeneous (diverse or varied) people consisting of Rouran, Hephthalites, and Turkic-Oghuric races who migrated to the region of the Pontic Grass Steppe (an area corresponding to modern-day Ukraine, Russia...
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