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Empress Theodora
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Empress Theodora

Theodora reigned as empress of the Byzantine Empire alongside her husband, Emperor Justinian I, from 527 CE until her death in 548 CE. Rising from a humble background and overcoming the prejudices of her somewhat disreputable early career...
Emperor Kammu
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Emperor Kammu

Emperor Kammu (aka Kanmu) reigned in ancient Japan from 781 to 806 CE and is most noted for relocating the capital to Heiankyo (Kyoto) in 794 CE. Kammu was one of the most powerful emperors Japan had seen or would ever see, and his reign...
Mystras
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Mystras

The city of Mystras (or Mistras) in southern Greece was the provincial capital of the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea from the 13th through the 15th centuries CE. It was founded in 1249 CE by William II of Villehadouin, and it served as...
Titus (Roman Emperor)
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Titus (Roman Emperor)

Titus was Roman emperor from 79 to 81 CE. On June 24, 79 CE Titus Flavius Vespasianus succeeded his father Vespasian (r. 69-79 CE) as emperor of the Roman Empire. Prior to his ascension to the throne, he was considered by many as “…unpopular...
Empire of Trebizond
Definitionby Michael Goodyear

Empire of Trebizond

The Empire of Trebizond was an offshoot of the Byzantine Empire that existed from 1204 to 1461 CE, ruled by the Megas Komnenos Dynasty, descendants of the Komenos Byzantine emperors. The Empire of Trebizond has been far less researched than...
Nikephoros I
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Nikephoros I

Nikephoros I ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 802 to 811 CE. A former finance minister who did much to improve the state economy, Nikephoros was not particularly popular with the empire's overtaxed peasants and overregulated...
Emperor Taizu of Song
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Emperor Taizu of Song

Emperor Taizu (960-976 CE), formerly known as Zhao Kuangyin, was the founder of the Song (aka Sung) dynasty which ruled China from 960 to 1279 CE. Taizu settled for a territorially smaller but more unified and prosperous China than was seen...
Emperor Wuzong of Tang
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Emperor Wuzong of Tang

Wuzong of Tang (also Wu-Tsung, formerly Li Yan) reigned as emperor of China from 840 to 846 CE. He is best remembered today for his persecution of Buddhists, the worst such attack in all of China's history, and his early death by insanity...
Tyrian Purple
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Tyrian Purple

Tyrian purple (aka Royal purple or Imperial purple) is a dye extracted from the murex shellfish which was first produced by the Phoenician city of Tyre in the Bronze Age. Its difficulty of manufacture, striking purple to red colour range...
Battle of Ad Decimum
Articleby Nathan Stafford

Battle of Ad Decimum

The Battle of Ad Decimum near Carthage, North Africa took place in September 533 CE and was the first major battle of the Vandalic War (533 - 534 CE) between the forces of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandal Kingdom. Leading the Vandals was...