Basil I & Leo VI Confront Each Other
A 13th century CE illustration showing Byzantine emperor Basil I (r. 867-886 CE) confronting Leo VI, his son, murderer and successor. (Madrid Sklitzes, National Library, Madrid)
Anna Komnene (aka Anna Comnena, 1083-1153 CE) was the eldest daughter of Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081-1118 CE) and the author of a lengthy biography of her father's reign, the Alexiad. Although not an impartial history, Anna's...
Visual Chronology of Roman Emperors: Augustus to Constantine
The Julio-Claudian Dynasty Augustus 16 Jan 27 BCE - 19 Aug 14 CE Tiberius 18 Sep 14 CE - 16 Mar 37 CE Caligula 18 Mar 37 CE - 24 Jan 41 CE Claudius 25 Jan 41 CE - 13 Oct 54 CE Nero 13 Oct 54 CE - 11 Jun...
Rome under the Julio-Claudian Dynasty
The Julio-Claudians were the first dynasty to rule the Roman Empire. After the death of the dictator-for-life Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, his adopted son Octavian - later to become known as Augustus (r. 27 BCE - 14 CE) - fought a civil war against...
A Byzantine chalice, c. 1070 CE. Made with a semi-precious stone body and gold stem, the cup is decorated with enamel plaques. (Treasury of Saint Mark’s, Venice)
Marcus Aurelius reigned as Roman emperor from 161 to 180 CE and is best known as the last of the Five Good Emperors of Rome (following Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius) and as the author of the philosophical work Meditations. He...
The Mandate of Heaven and The Yellow Turban Rebellion
Throughout history, in order for a government to be respected and obeyed, it must possess some form of legitimacy recognized by the governed. Governmental systems have relied on a number of models for legitimacy, among them the dynastic form...
Herdsman Milking a Goat, Byzantine Mosaic
Herdsman milking a goat: An old bearded shepherd is milking his goat and a boy is holding a milk jug. This scene reflects pastoral life. Period: Early Byzantine, circa 6th. century CE. Place: Constantinople, (Modern Istanbul, Turkey). Great...
Aurelian was Roman emperor from 270 to 275 CE. He was one of the so-called Barracks Emperors, chosen by the Roman army during the turbulent period known as the Crisis of the Third Century (235-284 CE). Besides victories against various invading...
Galba was Roman emperor from June 68 to January 69 CE. With the death of Emperor Nero on June 9, 68 CE, the Julio-Claudian dynasty officially ended, leaving the Roman Empire without a clear successor to the throne. With the assistance of...