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Ridda Wars
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Ridda Wars

The Ridda Wars or the Wars of Apostasy (632-633 CE) were a series of military engagements between the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE) and the renegade tribes of Arabia. The rebels had renounced their allegiance with the nascent...
Faras
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Faras

Faras was an important town near Abu Simbel in southern Egypt/northern Kush (modern-day Sudan). It was a center of trade and administrative offices which was founded between 2040-1750 BCE. In the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) a temple to Hathor...
Side
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Side

Side (pronounced see-day) was a city on the southern coast of Cilicia (modern-day Turkey) first settled in the 7th century BCE by immigrants from Cyme, an Aeolian municipality to the north near the kingdom of Lydia. Its name means 'pomegranate'...
Battle of Nicopolis
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Battle of Nicopolis

The Battle of Nicopolis in September 1396 CE, also known as the Nicopolis Crusade, was an attempt by French, Hungarian, and other European allies to curb the threat of the Ottoman Turks as they pressed ever westwards into Europe. Nicopolis...
Gezer
Definitionby Henry Curtis Pelgrift

Gezer

Gezer is an ancient city and archaeological site located in central Israel where the central mountains meet the northern Shephelah, about 10 km southeast of the city of Ramleh. According to the Hebrew Bible, Gezer was one of the great cities...
Authority in Ancient Rome: Auctoritas, Potestas, Imperium, and the Paterfamilias
Articleby Jesse Sifuentes

Authority in Ancient Rome: Auctoritas, Potestas, Imperium, and the Paterfamilias

Authority in ancient Rome was complex, and as one can expect from Rome, full of tradition, myth, and awareness of their own storied history. Perhaps the ultimate authority was imperium, the power to command the Roman army. Potestas was legal...
Artillery in Medieval Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Artillery in Medieval Europe

Artillery weapons in medieval Europe included the mounted crossbow (ballista) and single-arm torsion catapult (mangonel), both similar to ancient Roman machines. As armies battled further afield such as in the Byzantine Empire and against...
Letters & Post in the Ancient World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Letters & Post in the Ancient World

Letters and their delivery via a state communication system was a feature of many ancient cultures. The writing medium may have differed but the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and Incas all had the means to send messengers and...
The Early History of Clove, Nutmeg, & Mace
Articleby James Hancock

The Early History of Clove, Nutmeg, & Mace

The spices clove, nutmeg, and mace originated on only a handful of tiny islands in the Indonesian archipelago but came to have a dramatic, far-reaching impact on world trade. In antiquity, they became popular in the medicines of India and...
Ancient Crete
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Crete

Crete is an island in the eastern Mediterranean which during the Bronze Age produced the influential Minoan civilization with its distinctive architecture and art. An important member of the Greek world in the Archaic period, Crete dipped...
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