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Vitellius
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Vitellius

Vitellius was Roman emperor from April to December 69 CE. Vitellius was the third of the four emperors who ruled the Roman Empire in the year 69 CE. One of his predecessors, Galba, who had replaced the fallen Emperor Nero, was murdered by...
Postumus
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Postumus

Postumus was Roman emperor from 260 to 269 CE. Marcus Cassianus Latinius Postumus was a trusted military commander of Emperor Gallienus (253-268 CE) and governor or Germania Superior and Inferior (Upper and Lower Germany). After the death...
Edessa
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Edessa

Edessa (modern Urfa), located today in south-east Turkey but once part of upper Mesopotamia on the frontier of the Syrian desert, was an important city throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital...
Famous Grammarians & Poets of the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Helene Perdicoyianni-Paleologou

Famous Grammarians & Poets of the Byzantine Empire

In the wake of the downfall of the Western Roman Empire and the intellectual collapse of Athens, Byzantine scholars engaged in preserving the Classical Greek language and its literature. Thus they became the guardians of a vanished culture...
Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)

Islam arose as a religious and socio-political force in Arabia in the 7th century CE (610 CE onwards). The Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), despite facing resistance and persecution, amassed a huge following and started building...
Coronation of Theophilos
Imageby Unknown Artist

Coronation of Theophilos

An illustration from a 12th century CE manuscript depicting the coronation of Byzantine emperor Theophilos, r. 829-842 CE. (Madrid Skylitzes, National Library, Madrid)
John II Komnenos
Imageby Myrabella

John II Komnenos

Byzantine emperor John II Komnenos (r. 1118-1143 CE). From a 12th century CE mosaic panel in the south gallery of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul. The emperor is shown offering a gift to the Virgin and young Christ.
Insei: Cloistered Government in Ancient Japan
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Insei: Cloistered Government in Ancient Japan

Insei or 'cloistered government' describes the strategy of emperors during the late Heian Period (794-1185 CE) in ancient Japan where they abdicated in favour of a chosen heir yet still ruled in some capacity, typically after retiring to...
Otho
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Otho

Otho was Roman emperor from January to April 69 CE. Immediately after the assassination of Galba, Otho, the governor of Lusitania, was proclaimed emperor by the army. However, the unrest that existed in the short reign of Galba would spell...
Basil I & Leo VI Confront Each Other
Imageby Unknown Artist

Basil I & Leo VI Confront Each Other

A 13th century CE illustration showing Byzantine emperor Basil I (r. 867-886 CE) confronting Leo VI, his son, murderer and successor. (Madrid Sklitzes, National Library, Madrid)
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