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Michael II & Theophilos
Imageby Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Michael II & Theophilos

A gold coin depicting Byzantine emperor Michael II (r. 820-829 CE) and his heir and successor Theophilos. (Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com)
The Ideology of the Holy Roman Empire
Articleby Isaac Toman Grief

The Ideology of the Holy Roman Empire

"The Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire," wrote Voltaire, and this interpretation still dominates the popular imagination, so the Holy Roman Empire is treated as a bad joke, a pale parody of the glory of Rome...
Investiture Controversy
Definitionby Michael Griffith

Investiture Controversy

The Investiture Controversy, also referred to as the Investiture Contest or Investiture Dispute, was a conflict lasting from 1076 to 1122 between the papacy of the Catholic Church and the Salian Dynasty of German monarchs who ruled the Holy...
Domitian
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Domitian

Domitian was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96 CE and his reign, although one of relative peace and stability, became engulfed in both fear and paranoia. His death at the hands of those who were closest to him brought an end to the short dynasty...
Theodoric the Great
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Theodoric the Great

Theodoric the Great (l. c. 454-526 CE, r. 493-526 CE, also known as Flavius Theodoricus) was the king of the Ostrogoths who, at the encouragement and direction of the Roman emperor Zeno, invaded Italy, deposed King Odoacer, and ruled over...
Leo IV & Constantine VI
Imageby Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Leo IV & Constantine VI

A gold coin depicting Byzantine emperor Leo IV (r. 775-780 CE) on the right and his son and successor Constantine VI (r. 780-797 CE) on the left. (Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com)
Coin of Justinian II
Imageby Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.

Coin of Justinian II

A gold coin of Byzantine emperor Justinian II (r. 685-95 & 705-11 CE). This example is from his second reign. (Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. http://www.cngcoins.com)
Roman Egypt
Definitionby Donald L. Wasson

Roman Egypt

The rich lands of Egypt became the property of Rome after the death of Cleopatra VII in 30 BCE, which spelled the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty that had ruled Egypt since the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. After the murder of Gaius...
Kosrau I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Kosrau I

Kosrau I (r. 531-579 CE) was the greatest king of the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) in virtually every aspect of his reign. He reformed the military, the Persian government, expanded his territories, engaged in large-scale building projects...
Anastasios I
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Anastasios I

Anastasios I ruled the Byzantine empire from 491 to 518 CE. Although his tax and monetary reforms were both popular and successful, the emperor could not repair the damaging split in the Christian Church created by his predecessors. He faced...