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Greek Philosophy
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Greek Philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy is a system of thought, first developed in the 6th century BCE, which was informed by a focus on the First Cause of observable phenomena. Prior to the development of this system by Thales of Miletus (l. c. 585 BCE...
Umayyad Dynasty
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Umayyad Dynasty

The Umayyad Dynasty (661-750 CE), the first dynasty to take the title of Caliphate, was established in 661 CE by Muawiya (l. c. 602-680 CE), who had served as the governor of Syria under the Rashidun Caliphate, after the death of the fourth...
Prophet Muhammad
Definitionby Syed Muhammad Khan

Prophet Muhammad

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (l. 570-632 CE) is venerated today as the Prophet of Islam and the “seal of Prophets” by his followers – the Muslims. Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last – hence the “seal” – of many prophets before him in Judaism...
Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire
Book Reviewby Judith Herrin

Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire

The history of the Byzantine Empire covers a timeframe of over a millennium, and this fact alone has caused all kinds of headaches for authors, chief amongst them the dilemma of what to leave in and out of their books. The majority of writers...
Sayf al-Dawla
Imageby Cplakidas

Sayf al-Dawla

Sayf al-Dawla (r. 945-967 CE)at his court History of John Skylitzes - Skyllitzes Matritensis (Biblioteca Nacional de España)
Nikephoros II Phokas Captures Aleppo
Imageby Cplakidas

Nikephoros II Phokas Captures Aleppo

Capture of Aleppo by the Byzantines under Nikephoros Phokas in 962 CE. History of John Skylitzes - Skyllitzes Matritensis (Biblioteca Nacional de España)
Mulan: The Legend Through History
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Mulan: The Legend Through History

Mulan (“magnolia”) is a legendary character in Chinese literature who is best known in the modern day from the Disney filmed adaptations (1998, 2020). Her story, however, about a young girl who takes her father's place in the army to help...
Amphora
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Amphora

An amphora (Greek: amphoreus) is a jar with two vertical handles used in antiquity for the storage and transportation of foodstuffs such as wine and olive oil. The name derives from the Greek amphi-phoreus meaning 'carried on both sides'...
Officers of the Roman Army
Articleby Donald L. Wasson

Officers of the Roman Army

With the appearance of the legionary, the Roman army was able to maintain a vast empire that totally embraced the Mediterranean Sea. Although the success of the army rested on the backs of the foot-soldiers and cavalry, there were others...
Plutarch
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Plutarch

L. Mestrius Plutarchus, better known simply as Plutarch, was a Greek writer and philosopher who lived between c. 45-50 CE and c. 120-125 CE. A prodigious and hugely influential writer, he is now most famous for his biographical works in his...