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Celtic Bronze Shields
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Celtic Bronze Shields

The ancient Celts produced magnificent bronze shields in Iron Age Britain which were most likely for ceremonial purposes and display. Several fine examples have miraculously survived as evidence of the imagination, skill, and artistry of...
Villanovan Culture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Villanovan Culture

The Villanovan culture flourished during the Iron Age in central Italy from c. 1000 to c. 750 BCE. It was a precursor of the Etruscan civilization, although the two populations are actually the same and the term Villanovan should not imply...
Palestine
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Palestine

Palestine in the ancient world was part of the region known as Canaan where the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah were located. The term `Palestine' was originally a designation of an area of land in southern Canaan which the people known as the...
Trade in Ancient Celtic Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in Ancient Celtic Europe

Trade in raw materials and manufactured goods in ancient Celtic Europe was vibrant and far-reaching, particularly regarding the centre of the continent where there was a hub of well-established trade routes. As the Celts' territory expanded...
Ancient Greek Sculpture
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Greek Sculpture

The sculpture of ancient Greece from 800 to 300 BCE took inspiration from Egyptian and Near Eastern monumental art, and evolved into a uniquely Greek vision of the art form. Greek artists captured the human form in a way never before seen...
Viking Age Greenland
Articleby Emma Groeneveld

Viking Age Greenland

Greenland was drawn into the Viking Age and settled by Norse Vikings in the late 980s CE, their presence there lasting into the 15th century CE. Despite its ice-riddled geography, the Norse managed to carve out a living for themselves in...
Viking Art
Definitionby Emma Groeneveld

Viking Art

Art made by Scandinavians during the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) mostly encompassed the decoration of functional objects made of wood, metal, stone, textile and other materials with relief carvings, engravings of animal shapes and abstract...
Chimera of Arezzo
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Chimera of Arezzo

The Chimera of Arezzo is a bronze statue sculpted by the Etruscans of northern and central Italy during the 5th-4th century BCE. The creature is the fire-breathing monster from Greek mythology which has the head of a lion, tail of a snake...
Ancient Egyptian Government
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Government

The government of ancient Egypt was a theocratic monarchy as the king ruled by a mandate from the gods, initially was seen as an intermediary between human beings and the divine, and was supposed to represent the gods' will through the laws...
Mycenaean Fresco
Imageby Mark Cartwright

Mycenaean Fresco

Mycenaean fresco from Mycenae (1250-1180 BCE). Archeaological Museum Mycenae.
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