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Veii
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Veii

Veii (modern name: Isola Farnese, in Etruscan: Vei), was an important Etruscan town located near the west coast of central Italy. Lying just 16 km north of Rome, it was the most southerly of the major Etrurian settlements. The prosperity...
Saguntum
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Saguntum

Saguntum (modern Sagunto), located near Valencia in Spain, was an Iberian, and then Roman, settlement. The town's most dramatic moment in history came in the late 3rd century BCE when it was attacked by Hannibal, an act which famously sparked...
Constans II
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Constans II

Constans II (aka Konstans II) was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 641 to 668 CE. Sometimes known as Constans Pogonatos (“the Bearded”), he came to the throne by a series of unlikely events and his empire was immediately challenged...
Spiritual Defense - Execration Rituals in Ancient Egypt
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Spiritual Defense - Execration Rituals in Ancient Egypt

Magic was an integral aspect of life in ancient Egypt. The world was created through the power of heka (magic) as Atum stood on the primordial mound of the ben-ben in the middle of the endless waters of chaos with the god Heka, who personified...
Akhenaten
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Akhenaten

Akhenaten (r. 1353-1336 BCE) was a pharaoh of 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt. He is also known as 'Akhenaton' or 'Ikhnaton' and also 'Khuenaten', all of which are translated to mean 'successful for' or 'of great use to' the god...
The Negative Confession
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Negative Confession

The Negative Confession (also known as The Declaration of Innocence) is a list of 42 sins which the soul of the deceased can honestly say it has never committed when it stands in judgment in the afterlife. The soul would recite these in the...
Kingdom of Abyssinia
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Kingdom of Abyssinia

The Kingdom of Abyssinia was founded in the 13th century CE and, transforming itself into the Ethiopian Empire via a series of military conquests, lasted until the 20th century CE. It was established by the kings of the Solomonid dynasty...
Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians

Aethelflaed (r. 911-918 CE) was the daughter of King Alfred the Great of Wessex (r. 871-899 CE) and became queen of Mercia following the death of her husband Aethelred II, Lord of the Mercians (r. 883-911 CE). She is best known as the “Lady...
Egypt: Engineering an Empire
Videoby Prince Corsica

Egypt: Engineering an Empire

This video describes a number of great engineering achievements completed by various pharaohs in an attempt to build an Empire. Menes, the founding king of the First Dynasty oversaw the construction of the world's first dam. The Pharaoh...
Daily Life in the Byzantine Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Daily Life in the Byzantine Empire

Daily life in the Byzantine Empire, like almost everywhere else before or since, largely depended on one's birth and the social circumstances of one's parents. There were some opportunities for advancement based on education, the accumulation...