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Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages

The medieval Church established its monopoly over the spiritual life of Europeans in the Early Middle Ages (c. 476-1000 CE) and consolidated that power throughout the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) and Late Middle Ages (1300-1500 CE). Along...
Scottish Medieval Monarchs
Collectionby Mark Cartwright

Scottish Medieval Monarchs

In this collection, we present the 15 most important of the 21 monarchs to rule Scotland from the 11th to 16th century. For the first time forging a unified kingdom, the monarchs of this period were often warrior-kings who conquered the remoter...
Dead Sea Scrolls
Imageby Ken & Nyetta

Dead Sea Scrolls

The Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) are a collection of scrolls found in the desert east of Jerusalem on the shore of the Dead Sea. They represent the largest manuscript collections of texts from the Second Temple Period found in the area of Judah...
Ancient Armenia
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Ancient Armenia

Ancient Armenia, located in the south Caucasus area of Eurasia, was settled in the Neolithic era but its first recorded state proper was the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BCE. Incorporated into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great...
Eridu Genesis
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Eridu Genesis

The Sumerian Flood Story (also known as the Eridu Genesis, Sumerian Creation Myth, Sumerian Deluge Myth) is the oldest Mesopotamian text relating the tale of the Great Flood which would appear in later works such as the Atrahasis (17th century...
Cain Slaying Abel
Imageby Peter Paul Rubens

Cain Slaying Abel

Cain Slaying Abel, oil on oak wood painting by Peter Paul Rubens, produced between 1608 and 1609. Courtauld Institute of Art, London. Cain and Abel were sons of the first humans Adam and Eve in the biblical Book of Genesis. Cain was...
Book of Exodus
Imageby Walters Art Museum Illuminated Manuscripts

Book of Exodus

Fragment of the book of Exodus, Text page, Walters Manuscript W.739, fol. 1r This fragment from the Book of Exodus is a bifolium presenting the text of Exodus 21:16-35a on fol. 1 and 23:5b-21a on fol. 2. The missing text in between these...
Tel Dan Inscription
Imageby Dana Murray

Tel Dan Inscription

Erected in the mid ninth-eigth century B.C.E., the Tel Dan Stela includes the Tel Dan Inscription (or "House of David" inscription) thereby providing the first historical evidence of King David from the Bible. The inscription is written in...
Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Sumerian Civilization: Inventing the Future

Imagine something that has never been thought of before. If one holds a book in one's hands, one can imagine an e-book, a large-print book, a picture book, all kinds of books. But how does one imagine a book in a world where even the concept...
Torah
Definitionby Justin King

Torah

The Torah, also known as the Pentateuch (from the Greek for “five books”), is the first collection of texts in the Hebrew Bible. It deals with the origins of not only the Israelites but also the entire world. Though traditionally...