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Salem Witch Trials
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Salem Witch Trials

The Salem Witch Trials were a series of legal proceedings in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692-1693 resulting in the deaths of 20 innocent people accused of witchcraft and the vilification of over 200 others based, initially, on the reports of...
Catherine of Aragon
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Catherine of Aragon

Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536 CE) was a Spanish princess who famously became the Queen of England and the first wife of Henry VIII of England (r. 1509-1547 CE). When the marriage did not produce a male heir, Henry VIII became desperate to...
The Printing Revolution in Renaissance Europe
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Printing Revolution in Renaissance Europe

The arrival in Europe of the printing press with moveable metal type in the 1450s CE was an event which had enormous and long-lasting consequences. The German printer Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1398-1468 CE) is widely credited with the innovation...
Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Should-Be Famous Women of Early Christianity

Women feature prominently in the gospels and Book of Acts of the Christian New Testament as supporters of Jesus' ministry. The most famous of these is Mary Magdalene, most likely an upper-class woman of means instead of the prostitute label...
Ten Ancient LGBTQ Facts You Need to Know
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Ten Ancient LGBTQ Facts You Need to Know

Issues in the modern-day regarding gender identity and civil rights for members of the LGBTQ community are a relatively recent phenomenon as are the terms 'homosexual' and 'heterosexual'. In ancient societies, there was no distinction made...
Sumerians
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Sumerians

The Sumerians were the people of southern Mesopotamia whose civilization flourished between c. 4100-1750 BCE. Their name comes from the region which is frequently – and incorrectly – referred to as a “country”. Sumer was never a cohesive...
Nebuchadnezzar II
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Nebuchadnezzar II

Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 605/604-562 BCE) was the greatest King of ancient Babylon during the period of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (626-539 BCE), succeeding its founder, his father, Nabopolassar (r. 626-605 BCE). Nabopolassar had defeated the...
Phoenician Religion
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Phoenician Religion

The Phoenician Religion, as in many other ancient cultures, was an inseparable part of everyday life. Gods such as Baal, Astarte, and Melqart had temples built in their name, offerings and sacrifices were regularly made to them, royalty performed...
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire (912-612 BCE) was, according to many historians, the first true empire in the world. The Assyrians had expanded their territory from the city of Ashur over the centuries, and their fortunes rose and fell with successive...
The Candaces of Meroe
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Candaces of Meroe

The Candaces of Meroe were the queens of the Kingdom of Kush who ruled from the city of Meroe c. 284 BCE-c. 314 CE - a number of whom ruled independently c. 170 BCE-c. 314 CE - in what is now Sudan. The title Candace is the Latinized version...