Assyrian Soldiers Attacking a City
Alabaster bas-relief depicting an overwhelming Assyrian attack on a city. Neo-Assyrian Period, 865-860 BCE. Detail of Panel 5 (bottom), Room B, the North-Palace Palace, Nimrud, modern-day Iraq. (The British Museum, London)
This Assyrian relief from the North-West Palace in Kalhu (c. 865-860 BCE) shows King Ashurnasirpal advancing on an enemy city, protected by a shield-bearer. Ahead is a wheeled siege engine, which carries more archers and contains a lever-operated...
Sammu-Ramat and Semiramis: The Inspiration and the Myth
Sammu-Ramat (r. 811-806 BCE) was the queen regent of the Assyrian Empire who held the throne for her young son Adad Nirari III (r. 811-783 BCE) until he reached maturity. She is also known as Shammuramat, Sammuramat, and, most notably, as...
Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe
Siege tactics were a crucial part of medieval warfare, especially from the 11th century CE when castles became more widespread in Europe and sieges outnumbered pitched battles. Castles and fortified cities offered protection to both the local...
War in Ancient Times
The word 'war' comes to English from the old High German language word Werran (to confuse or to cause confusion) through the Old English Werre (meaning the same), and is a state of open and usually declared armed conflict between political...
Fortifications in Ancient Chinese Warfare
While ancient Chinese warfare was often characterised by large armies in pitched battles, siege warfare and the sacking of cities were also regular features. Huge earth walls with towers and encircling ditches or moats became the normal strategy...
Warfare in Ancient China
Chinese warfare involved perhaps the largest and most technologically advanced armies in the ancient world. Chariots, cavalry, swords, bows and crossbows were all staple features of the battles which raged as rulers forever struggled to dominate...
Roman artillery weapons were instrumental in the successes of the Roman army over centuries and were especially used in siege warfare, both for offence and defence. Principally used in fixed positions or onboard ships, these machines, known...
Assyrian Military Campaign in Southern Mesopotamia
The Assyrian king in a chariot watches as prisoners are brought in and heads and booty are piled-up in a palm grove. Neo-Assyrian era, 640-620 BCE, Mesopotamia, Iraq. From Nineveh, south-west palace, court XIX, panels 10-12. (The British...
Neo-Assyrian Empire c. 912 - 612 BCE
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire c. 912 - 612 BCE, showing expansion by Shalmeneser III (r. c. 859 - 824 BCE), Tiglath-Pileser III (r. c. 745 - 727 BCE), Sargon II (r. c. 722 - 705 BCE), Sennacherib (r. c. 705 - 681 BCE), and Ashurbanipal (r...