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Hadrian (Aged Facial Reconstruction)
Imageby Daniel Voshart

Hadrian (Aged Facial Reconstruction)

A photorealistic reconstruction of what the Roman emperor Hadrian (r. 117-138 CE) may have looked like as an older man. Based on contemporary and near contemporary descriptions, as well as archaeological evidence. Pictured alongside the...
Antoninus Pius (Facial Reconstruction)
Imageby Daniel Voshart

Antoninus Pius (Facial Reconstruction)

A photorealistic reconstruction of what the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius (r. 138-161 CE) may have looked like. Based on contemporary and near contemporary descriptions, as well as archaeological evidence. Pictured alongside the reconstruction...
Yazdegerd III
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Yazdegerd III

Yazdegerd III (r. 632-651 CE) was the last monarch of the Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE), ruling – or attempting to rule – amidst the chaos of its final decline and fall to the invading Muslim Arabs. He was the son of the prince...
Cats in the Ancient World
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Cats in the Ancient World

Cats and humans have shared in each other's lives for thousands of years and, even though they have not always been regarded as highly as in the present, have played an important role in a number of cultures. Always enigmatic, the cat has...
Squanto in the Primary Sources
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Squanto in the Primary Sources

Squanto (l. c. 1585-1622 CE) is the best-known Native American of the pilgrim narrative, famous for helping the Plymouth Colony survive in 1621 CE. He makes up what scholar Charles C. Mann calls the “uneasy triumvirate” of Native Americans...
The Delian League, Part 4: The Ten Years War (431/0-421/0 BCE)
Articleby Christopher Planeaux

The Delian League, Part 4: The Ten Years War (431/0-421/0 BCE)

This text is part of an article series on the Delian League. The fourth phase of the Delian League encompasses the first part of the Great Peloponnesian War, also referred to as the Ten Years War, sometimes called quite incorrectly The...
Squanto
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Squanto

Squanto (l. c. 1585-1622 CE) was the Native American of the Patuxet tribe who helped the English settlers of Plymouth Colony (later known as pilgrims) survive in their new home by teaching them how to plant crops, fish, and hunt. He is also...
Medieval Hygiene
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Medieval Hygiene

People in the Middle Ages have acquired something of a bad reputation when it comes to cleanliness, especially the peasantry. However, despite the general lack of running water and other modern amenities, there were common expectations of...
Pericles
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Pericles

Pericles (l. 495–429 BCE) was a prominent Greek statesman, orator, and general during the Golden Age of Athens. The period in which he led Athens, in fact, has been called the Age of Pericles due to his influence, not only on his city's fortunes...
The Crisis of the Third Century
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

The Crisis of the Third Century

The Crisis of the Third Century (also known as the Imperial Crisis, 235-284 CE) was the period in the history of the Roman Empire during which it splintered into three separate political entities: the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire, and...
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