The coinage of the Byzantine Empire continued that of its more ancient predecessors and functioned as a convenient method of payment for goods and services, especially to soldiers and officials, and as a means for people to pay their taxes...
Hellenistic Trade Routes, 300 BCE
Alexander the Great died in Babylon on the 13th of June, 323 BCE. His Macedonian-Greek empire broke apart, but Alexander’s heritage was felt throughout the ancient Mediterranean world for centuries. Three Hellenic empires emerged from the...
Trade in the Roman Empire Map (c. 200 CE)
This map shows the major sources of trade goods in the Roman Empire, circa 200 CE. The map shows the sources of the following trade goods: grain, olive oil, slaves, wine, metals, textiles and wild animals.
Phoenician Trade Network
Map of Phoenicia and its trade routes.
Jang Bogo (aka Chang Pogo or Gungbok) was a powerful Korean warlord, naval commander, and merchant who came to monopolise maritime trade in northeast Asia to such a degree that he was known as the 'King of the Yellow Sea' during the first...
Birka, located on the island of Björkö in present-day Sweden, was an important trading center and strongly fortified town in the Viking Age which flourished from the 8th through the 10th centuries CE. Along with the town of Hedeby...
Godin Tepe is, today, an archaeological site in the Kangavar valley of Luristan, in western central Iran. The name means "hill of Godin" though what the settlement was called originally is unknown. The site was first discovered...
Medieval Spice Merchant
A detail from a stained glass window of Chartres Cathedral, France showing a vendor of spices. 13th century CE. Many medieval guilds contributed to the production of the windows of the cathedral.
This marble relief shows a man sailing a corbita, a small Roman coastal vessel with two masts. Found at Carthage, most likely produced in Africa Proconsularis (modern-day Tunisia) circa 200 CE. The corbita's sails were most likely made...
Byzantine Steelyard Rod with Weight
A Roman invention, the steelyard (or stilyard) balance employed sliding weights along an etched arm to determine the mass of goods, much like the modern beam balance. The Byzantine balance pictured dates from the 5th to 7th centuries CE...