Richard, Duke of York
Richard, 3rd Duke of York (l. 1411-1460 CE) was the richest man in England and one of the nobles who sparked off the Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE), a dynastic dispute that rumbled on for four decades between several English kings...
Richard III of England
Richard III of England ruled as king from 1483 to 1485 CE. Richard succeeded Edward V of England (r. Apr-Jun 1483 CE), the son of Edward IV of England (r. 1461-1470 CE & 1471-1483 CE) in mysterious circumstances. The young Edward V and...
Edward IV of England
Edward IV of England ruled as king from 1461 to 1470 CE and again from 1471 to 1483 CE. The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) had been lost by Edward's predecessor, Henry VI of England (1422-1461 CE & 1470-1471...
Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487) was a dynastic conflict between the English nobility and monarchy which led to four decades of intermittent battles, executions, and murder plots. The English elite was split into two camps, each centred...
The Wyndclyffe Estate
There are many fascinating and forlorn ruins throughout New York’s Hudson Valley, and, among them, the tottering remains of what was once considered the grandest home in the area and among the most famous in the country: Wyndclyffe. Between...
A Gilded Age Village Episode III: Mills Estate Employees
Staatsburg: A Gilded Age Village Throwback Thursday - A 3 Part Video Series The Staatsburg Library and the Staatsburgh State Historic Site have joined forces to collaborate on this educational video series. Join Staatsburgh Historic...
Henry VI of England
Henry VI of England ruled as king from 1422 to 1461 CE and again from 1470 to 1471 CE. Succeeding his father Henry V of England (r. 1413-1422 CE), Henry VI was crowned the king of France in 1431 CE but he could not prevent a French revival...
Mills Mansion, "Staatsburgh", in Staatsburg, NY, USA
Mills Mansion, known in its time as "Staatsburgh", located in Staatsburg, NY, USA. Home of the financier Ogden Mills (l. 1856-1929) and his wife Ruth Livingston Mills (l. 1855-1920). Donated to the state of New York at a public park in 1938...
Hopeland Estate, Staatsburg, NY, USA
Hopeland Estate, Staatsburg, NY, home of the architect and tennis professional Robert "Bob" Palmer Huntington (l. 1869-1949), who built the 35-room Tudor Revival mansion c. 1907. Mansion designed by Calvert Vaux and dismantled between 1940-1950...
Mills Mansion viewed from the front, Staatsburg, NY, USA
Mills Mansion, also known as "Staatsburgh", located in Staatsburg, NY, USA, seen from the front lower lawn, renovated 1895.
Gates of Mills Mansion, "Staatsburgh", Staatsburg, NY, USA
The gates of the Mills Mansion estate also known as "Staatsburgh", located in Staatsburg, NY, USA, c. 1906, although the mansion itself was renovated to its present state c. 1895.
Oheka Castle, built by the industrialist Otto Herman Kahn (l. 1867-1934), is one of the best-known luxury hotels of Long Island, NY, USA today. In its time as a private residence, it was the site of the kind of lavish parties which inspired...
Causes of the Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a series of dynastic conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility of England. The 'wars' were a series of intermittent, often small-scale battles, executions, murders, and failed plots as the...
Bronze Age Collapse
The Bronze Age Collapse (also known as Late Bronze Age Collapse) is a modern-day term referring to the decline and fall of major Mediterranean civilizations during the 13th-12th centuries BCE. The precise cause of the Bronze Age Collapse...
The Hoyt House Known as The Point, Staatsburg, NY, USA
The Point, home of Lydig Munson Hoyt (l. 1821-1868), designed by the architect Calvert Vaux (l. 1824-1895) and built between 1855-1857, taken from the Hoyt family under eminent domain in 1963. Image taken from a 19th-century postcard.
Micklegate Bar, York
Micklegate Bar, York, one of the medieval gates of the city. The gate was first built in the 12th century CE and then extended upwards in the 14th century CE.
New England Colonies
The New England Colonies were the settlements established by English religious dissenters along the coast of the north-east of North America between 1620-1640 CE. The original colonies were: Plymouth Colony (1620 CE) New Hampshire...
From the dawn of our species to the present day, stone-made artefacts are the dominant form of material remains that have survived to today concerning human technology. The term “Stone Age” was coined in the late 19th century...
Greek Dark Age
The Greek Dark Age is the interval between the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization, around 1200 BCE, and the Greek Archaic Period, around c. 800 BCE. The Dark Age era begins with a catastrophic event: the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization...
New Kingdom of Egypt
The New Kingdom (c. 1570- c.1069 BCE) is the era in Egyptian history following the disunity of the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782-1570 BCE) and preceding the dissolution of the central government at the start of the Third Intermediate...
New English Canaan
New English Canaan is a three-volume work of history, natural history, satire, and poetry by the lawyer and New England colonist Thomas Morton (l. c. 1579-1647 CE) published in 1637 CE. The book developed out of legal briefs Morton prepared...
The Wars of the Roses: Consequences & Effects
The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a dynastic conflict where the nobility and monarchs of England intermittently battled for supremacy over a period of four decades. Besides the obvious consequences of Lancastrian and Yorkist kings...
Stone Age Tools
As the Stone Age covers around 99% of our human technological history, it would seem there is a lot to talk about when looking at the development of tools in this period. Despite our reliance on the sometimes scarce archaeological record...
Ruins of the Hoyt House, "The Point"
"The Point", home of the Hoyt family from c. 1857-1963, Staatsburg, NY, USA. Restoration efforts to save the historic structure, designed by Clavert Vaux, are presently underway.
Middle and Southern English Colonies
The establishment of the Middle and Southern English Colonies of North America was encouraged by the earlier English settlements of Jamestown Colony of Virginia in the south (founded 1607) and Plymouth Colony and, especially, Massachusetts...
Traditional Maori Tattoo of New Zealand
Te Papa Tongawera (or simply Te Papa) is New Zealand's innovative national museum situated near the foreshore of beautiful Wellington harbour. Te Papa Tongawera means “container of treasures” in Te Reo Maori, which is the indigenous...
The Locusts-on-Hudson estate of Henry Brockholst Livingston (l. 1757-1823), built c. 1797. Image from a postcard of the 19th century.
Arms of Richard, Duke of York
The arms of Richard, Duke of York (l. 1411-1460 CE). Richard, the 3rd Duke of York, was a great-grandson of Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE), hence his use of the royal arms (lions and fleur-de-lis).
Family Tree of House Lancaster & York
A family tree showing the genealogy of the House Lancaster and House York, from Edward III of England (r. 1327 - 1377 CE) to Henry VII of England (r. 1485 - 1509 CE) and Edward V of England (l. 1470 - 1483 CE).
King Stephen of England, York Minster
A detail of the sculpture of King Stephen of England (r. 1135 - 1154 CE) from the Quire's Screen (also known as the Choir's Screen or the King's Screen) in York Minster. The Screen was created in the 15th Century CE, and portrays every English...
Richard, Duke of York, Ludlow
A stained glass window showing Richard, Duke of York (l. 1411-1460 CE). Saint Laurence's Church, Ludlow, England. (Image from www.richardiiiworcs.co.uk/ludlowthumbnails.html - no copyright indicated)
Henry I of England, York Minster
Sculpture of King Henry I of England (r. 1100 - 1135 CE) from the Quire's Screen (also known as the Choir's Screen or the King's Screen) in York Minster. The Screen was created in the 15th Century CE, and portrays every English king from...
Richard Duke of York, Frontispiece Detail
A detail of the frontispiece of the Talbot Shrewsbury Book showing Richard, Duke of York (l. 1411-1460 CE). Mid-15th century CE. (British Library, London)
Interview: The Mysterious Bronze Age Collapse with Eric Cline
The decline of the Late Bronze Age civilizations of the Mediterranean and Near East has puzzled historians and archaeologists for centuries. While many have ascribed the collapse of several civilizations to the enigmatic Sea Peoples, Professor...
The term Venus figurine is used to describe the more than 200 small statuettes of voluptuous female figures that have been found at Upper Paleolithic sites across Europe and some parts of Asia. “When paleoanthropologists refer to figurines...
Mesopotamian Effects on Israel During the Iron Age
The Iron Age in the traditional Ancient Near Eastern chronology ranges from somewhere around 1200 BCE to 333 BCE. It begins from the era when it was first thought iron came to be used up to the ascendency of Alexander the Great as the major...
Why Did the Dutch Give Up New York?
New York is one of the most influential cities in the world; economically, culturally and diplomatically it is a powerhouse. It’s population also largely speaks English, a legacy America has from it’s past as a British colony. But the English...
Yorks v Lancasters - The Wars of the Roses
The Wars of the Roses (1455-1487 CE) was a four-decade struggle between two branches of the descendants of Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE). These two family groups: the Lancasters and Yorks, would swap places...
Beauty in the Bronze Age - Minoan & Mycenaean Fashion
Dress and appearance in Bronze Age Greece (c. 3100 BCE - c. 1100 BCE) played a part in defining gender roles and emphasising idealized beauty that planted the seed for modern-day standards. The Minoans turned the island of Crete into a Mediterranean...
William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North
By the end of 1066 CE William the Conqueror had won a decisive victory at the Battle of Hastings, subdued the south-east of England and been crowned King William I in Westminster Abbey but there remained rebellion in the air throughout 1067...
The Mycenaean civilization flourished in the Late Bronze Age (c. 1700-1100 BCE), peaking from the 15th to the 13th century BCE. The Mycenaeans extended their influence throughout the Peloponnese in Greece and across the Aegean from Crete...
Medieval European Manorialism (Manorial System) was the system where rural society was arranged around a manor house or castle on an estate. The smallest units of these estates were called manors. Free and unfree labourers here worked the...
Ancient Egyptian Government
The government of ancient Egypt was a theocratic monarchy as the king ruled by a mandate from the gods, initially was seen as an intermediary between human beings and the divine, and was supposed to represent the gods' will through the laws...
Norman Conquest of England
The Norman Conquest of England (1066-71) was led by William the Conqueror who defeated King Harold II at the Battle of Hastings. The Anglo-Saxon elite lost power as William redistributed land to his fellow Normans. Crowned William I of England...
Religion in Colonial America
Religion in Colonial America was dominated by Christianity although Judaism was practiced in small communities after 1654. Christian denominations included Anglicans, Baptists, Catholics, Congregationalists, German Pietists, Lutherans, Methodists...
Bronze Age Sicily
The Bronze Age in Sicily, considered one of the most important periods of the island's prehistory, witnessed the establishment of a unitary and in some ways artistically vibrant culture. The three main phases of the period take their name...
Ancient Egyptian Warfare
The Narmer Palette, an ancient Egyptian ceremonial engraving, depicts the great king Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) conquering his enemies with the support and approval of his gods. This piece, dating from c. 3200-3000 BCE, was initially thought to...
The Plymouth Colony (1620-1691 CE) was the first English settlement in the region of modern-day New England in the United States, settled by the religious separatists known as the “pilgrims” who crossed the Atlantic Ocean on the...
Thomas Morton (l. c. 1579-1647 CE) was an English lawyer, poet, writer, and an early colonist of North America who established the utopian community of Merrymount, sparking conflict with his separatist neighbors at Plymouth Colony and the...
An ice age is a period in which the earth's climate is colder than normal, with ice sheets capping the poles and glaciers dominating higher altitudes. Within an ice age, there are varying pulses of colder and warmer climatic conditions, known...
New Gilgamesh Fragment: Enkidu's Sexual Exploits Doubled
Sometimes it is the smallest discoveries that have the largest impact. When Alexandra Kleinerman and Alhena Gadotti found a new fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh in 2015 CE, it did not seem to be particularly impressive. The broken tablet...
Tel Kabri is an archaeological site in the Western Galilee in northwestern Israel and the location of one of the largest palaces in Canaan in the Middle Bronze Age or "MB" (c. 2,000–1,500 BCE), the period in which Tel Kabri...
Merrymount Colony (1624-1630 CE) was a settlement first established in New England as Mount Wollaston in 1624 CE but renamed Mount Ma-re (referred to as Merrymount) in 1626 CE by the lawyer, writer, and colonist Thomas Morton (l. c. 1579-1647...
The Egyptian Empire rose during the period of the New Kingdom (c. 1570- c. 1069 BCE), when the country reached its height of wealth, international prestige, and military might. The empire stretched from modern-day Syria in the north to modern-day...
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628-1691 CE) was the largest English settlement in New England and the most influential both in the colonization of the region and later developments in what would become the United States of America. It was founded...
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782 - c.1570 BCE) is the era following the time of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE) and preceding the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). As with all historical designations of the eras of Egyptian...
Women in the Viking Age
Although women in the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) lived in a male-dominated society, far from being powerless, they ran farms and households, were responsible for textile production, moved away from Scandinavia to help settle Viking territories...
The Meaning of European Upper Paleolithic Rock Art
Rock art (also known as parietal art) is an umbrella term which refers to several types of creations including finger markings left on soft surfaces, bas-relief sculptures, engraved figures and symbols, and paintings onto a rock surface...
The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions or German: Völkerwanderung (wandering of the peoples), was a period of human migration that occurred roughly between 300 to 700 CE in Europe, marking the transition from Late...
The Palaeolithic ('Old Stone Age') makes up the earliest chunk of the Stone Age – the large swathe of time during which hominins used stone to make tools – and ranges from the first known tool use roughly 2,6 million years ago...