Lycia is a mountainous region in south-west Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey). The earliest references to Lycia can be traced through Hittite texts to sometime before 1200 BCE, where it is known as the Lukka Lands. The...
Ancient Asia Minor is a geographic region located in the south-western part of Asia comprising most of what is present-day Turkey. The earliest reference to the region comes from tablets of the Akkadian Dynasty (2334-2083 BCE) where it is...
Sarpedon is a figure from ancient Greek mythology, a Lycian prince who was one of the principal heroes during the Trojan War and fought on the side of Troy. According to Homer's Iliad, he was the son of Zeus by Laodameia and the cousin of...
The Heroon of Trysa: A Lycian Tomb Reappears
The Heroon of Trysa was the tomb of a powerful Lycian dynast surrounded by a precinct wall covered with remarkable mythological friezes. It was discovered in 1841 CE when a Polish-Prussian school teacher and classical philologist, Julius...
Conflict & Celts: The Creation of Ancient Galatia
Galatia was the most long-lasting and powerful Celtic settlement outside of Europe. It was the only kingdom of note to be forged during the Celtic invasions of the Mediterranean in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. From its foundation, Galatia...
Herodotus on Lydia
I:93. Of marvels to be recorded the land of Lydia has no great store as compared with other lands, excepting the gold-dust which is carried down from Tmolos; but one work it has to show which is larger far than any other except only those...
Mithridates VI (120-63 BCE, also known as Mithradates, Mithradates Eupator Dionysius, Mithridates the Great) was the king of Pontus (modern-day northeastern Turkey) who was regarded by his people as their savior from the oppression of Rome...
Asia Minor in the Early 1st Century CE
Map of Asia Minor in the early 1st century CE with the Kingdom of Commagene as a Roman client state.
Aytap is the modern name for the ancient city of Iotapa (sometimes given as Iotape and Iotape Philadelphos) in Cilicia. The city's ruins are located in southern Turkey near modern day Alanya (ancient Coracesium). The city was founded in 52...
Top 10 Archaeological Sites in Caria, Turkey
Located at the crossroads of many ancient civilizations, Turkey is a haven for archaeology lovers. Over the centuries, a succession of empires and kingdoms – Hittite, Lydian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Byzantine and, finally, Ottoman – ruled...
Lydia was a region of western Asia Minor which prospered due to its natural resources and position on trading routes between the Mediterranean and Asia. The Kingdom of Lydia flourished in the 7th and 6th centuries BCE and expanded to its...
The Aegean Sea lies between the coast of Greece and Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It contains over 2,000 islands which were settled by the ancient Greeks; the largest among them being Crete (Kriti) and the best known and most often photographed...
Cilicia is the ancient Roman name for the southeastern region of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It is referenced in the biblical books of Acts and Galatians, was the birthplace of Saint Paul, and the site of his early evangelical missions...
Croesus (pronounced 'KREE-sus') was the King of Lydia, a country in western Asia Minor (corresponding to modern-day Turkey) from 560-547 BCE and was so wealthy that the old expression "as rich as Croesus" originates in reference...
Myra - Ocean Necropolis
Myra is an ancient town in Lycia. The city has two necropoli of Lycian rock-cut tombs in the form of temple fronts carved into the vertical faces of cliffs at Myra: the river necropolis and the ocean necropolis. The ocean necropolis is...
Herodotus (c. 484 – 425/413 BCE) was a Greek writer who invented the field of study known today as `history'. He was called `The Father of History' by the Roman writer and orator Cicero for his famous work The Histories but...
Lycian tombs, Xanthos
The Harpy tomb and the pillared sarcophagus, two monumental Lycian tombs from Xanthos (Lycia, Turkey). The Harpy tomb (left) dates to approximately 480–470 BCE whilst the pillared sarcophagus (right) dates to the 4th century BCE.
The Importance of the Lydian Stater as the World's First Coin
The Lydian Stater was the official coin of the Lydian Empire, introduced before the kingdom fell to the Persian Empire. The earliest staters are believed to date to around the second half of the 7th century BCE, during the reign of King Alyattes...
The Attalid Dynasty ruled an empire from their capital at Pergamon during the 3rd and 2nd century BCE. Fighting for their place in the turbulent world following the death of Alexander the Great, the Attalids briefly flourished with Pergamon...
10 Virtual Tours of Archaeological Sites & Museums in Turkey
Thanks to the new Sanal Muze digital portal released by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Turkey in 2020 CE, history lovers and art enthusiasts can now take virtual tours of Turkey's best archaeological sites and museums. There are currently...
Gobekli Tepe - the World's First Temple?
Located in modern Turkey, Göbekli Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. The discovery of this stunning 10,000 year old site in the 1990s CE sent shock waves through the archaeological world and beyond...
The Hittites occupied the ancient region of Anatolia (also known as Asia Minor, modern-day Turkey) prior to 1700 BCE, developed a culture apparently from the indigenous Hatti (and possibly the Hurrian) people, and expanded their territories...
Economy & Trade in Ancient Greece
We have prepared five lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Multiple choice quiz questions in an excel format Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions...
Author Interview: Son of Ishtar by Gordon Doherty
Today we sit down with Gordon Doherty to discuss his new book Empires of Bronze: Son of Ishtar. Based in the dark and cold north (i.e. Scotland), Gordon has written extensively on ancient Greece and Rome. His new novel, however, takes us...
Lycian Sarcophagus, Sidon
Detail of horses on a Lycian Sarcophagus, from Sidon, 5th Century BC. Istanbul Archaeology Museums.
Gulet Anchored at Lycian Coast
A gulet, a traditional two-masted Turkish sailing boat, anchored on the Lycian coastline. Photography by Peter Sommer Travels, republished with permission.
The Regions of Ancient Anatolia
A map of the regions of ancient Anatolia, circa 500 BC. Greek settlement areas are noted in italics.
Lycian tombs at Kyaenai, with Hellenistic theatre in the background. Photo provided by Peter Sommer Travels, republished with permission.
Lycian landscape as found between Apollonia and Aperlae. Photo provided by Peter Sommer Travels, republished with permission.
Chester: A Time-Travelling City
It is said that Chester is the richest city in Britain in terms of archaeological and architectural treasures. One of the finest strategic outposts of the Roman Empire, it is one of the few walled cities left in Britain today. Rachael Lindsay...
Leto is a Titan and the mother of the gods Apollo and Artemis in Greek mythology. Leto's twin children were the result of an amorous encounter with Zeus, and to avoid his wife Hera's wrath, the Titaness was obliged to give birth on the remote...
Trade & Commerce in Ancient Greece
The ancient Mediterranean was a busy place with trading ships sailing in all directions to connect cities and cultures. The Greeks were so keen on the rewards of trade and commerce that they colonized large parts of the coastal Mediterranean...
The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt. They are considered one of the major contributing...
Diodorus Siculus' Account of the Life of Semiramis
Semiramis is the semi-divine Warrior-Queen of Assyria, whose reign is most clearly documented by the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus (90-30 BCE) in his great work Bibliotheca Historica ("Historical Library") written over thirty...
Wars of the Diadochi
On June 10, 323 BCE Alexander the Great died in Babylon. Although historians have debated the exact cause most agree that the empire he built was left without adequate leadership for there was no clear successor or heir. The military...
Antonia Minor (36 BCE-37 CE), was the second daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. (Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, Rome)
Tomb of Payava, South Side
This relief, which is seen on the south side of the Payava Tomb, depicts 2 armed figures. The inscriptions in Lycian read "Payava, son of Ad..., secretary of A...rah, by race a Lycian". Payava tomb is a limestone tomb with gabled roof. It...
Opening the Way to India
Possibly being overjoyed by the tales of mythical exploits of Heracles, Semiramis, the fabled queen of Assyria, Cyrus, King of Persia and so on, Alexander the Great set out from the tiny kingdom of Macedon for a daring adventure, unheard...
Perdiccas (d. 321 BCE) was one of Alexander the Great's commanders, and after his death, custodian of the treasury, regent over Philip III and Alexander IV, and commander of the royal army. When Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont...
Tomb of Payava, East Side
This relief, which is seen on the east side of the Payava Tomb, depicts a battle of cavalry and foot soldiers. The inscriptions in Lycian record that the tomb was built by Payava. The Payava tomb is a limestone tomb with gabled roof. It was...
Tomb of Payava, West Side
This relief, which is seen on the south side of the Payava Tomb, depicts a seated Persian, apparently a satrap or governor, with attendent figures. The inscriptions in Lycian probably mention the name of the satrap as Autophradates. The Payava...
East Asia in the year 1 CE
This map shows the boundaries of all major civilizations in East Asia at the beginning of the first millennium, with italics indicating nomadic bands and other tribal societies.
East Asia in 400 CE
This map shows all major civilizations of East Asia at the beginning of 4th century CE. Italicized texts indicate nomadic bands or tribal societies.
East Asia in 500 CE
This map shows the territories of all major civilizations in East Asia in the year 500 CE. Italicized texts indicate nomadic bands or tribal societies.
East Asia circa 300 CE
This map shows all major civilizations of East Asia at the beginning of the 3rd century CE. Italicized texts indicate nomadic bands or tribal societies.
Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE
The Battle of the Eurymedon (c. 466 BCE, also given as the Battle of the Eurymedon River) was a military engagement between the Greeks of the Delian League and the forces of the Achaemenid Empire toward the end...
The Payava Tomb
This is a limestone tomb with gabled roof. It was decorated with reliefs on its four sides and inscribed with Lycian inscriptions. It was made in Lycia; found in Xanthus. Greek Period, circa 375-362 BCE. (The British Museum, London)
Tomb of Payava, North Side
This relief, which is seen on the north side of the Payava Tomb, depicts a man placing a wreath on a head of a young athlete. The Payava tomb is a limestone tomb with gabled roof. It was decorated with reliefs on its four sides and inscribed...
The Door is Closed
Turkey hides incredible treasures, it is not difficult to walk a trail in the mountains and find places like this. Especially in Lycia (where the photo was shot), here there are great relics of the ancient world, much of which is present...
The First Crusade (1095-1102) was a military campaign by western European forces to recapture the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. Conceived by Pope Urban II following an appeal from the Byzantine emperor Alexios I...
The Uluburun shipwreck is a Bronze Age vessel discovered lying off the coast of Kas, Turkey. The ship, probably originally from Phoenicia/Canaan, dates to between 1330 and 1300 BCE and was carrying a full cargo of trade goods, perhaps from...
The Mongol Empire (1206-1368) was founded by Genghis Khan (r. 1206-1227), first Great Khan or 'universal ruler' of the Mongol peoples. Genghis forged the empire by uniting nomadic tribes of the Asian steppe and creating a devastatingly effective...
Temple of Zeus Chrysaoreus, Caria
The Temple of Zeus Chrysaoreus (Zeus of the Golden sword) in Alabanda (or Antiochia of the Chrysaorians), an ancient city of Caria in Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). The temple was built in the 3rd century BCE. It is Doric with a peripteral...
Coin of a Persian Satrap
In the Persian Empire, some regional governors (satraps) were authorized to issue coins for military purposes. They combine Persian and Greek imagery, showing a satrap's head and a local reverse image. These are some of the earliest coin...
Coins Depicting a Persian Satrap
In the Persian Empire, some regional governors (satraps) were authorized to issue coins for military purposes. They combine Persian and Greek imagery, showing a strap's head and a local reverse image. These are some of the earliest coin portraits...
Grave Stela of Lenaios
This is a marble grave stela of Lenaios, son of Artemidoros. The deceased image is shown as a banqueter, which belies in his military occupation in life, as indicated in the inscription "As I guarded the tower in battle, oh passer-by, shall...
Lysimachus (c. 361-281 BCE) was one of Alexander the Great's trusted bodyguards and a member of his Companion Cavalry. Although he obtained Macedonian citizenship, his father was a Thessalian named Agathocles. After Alexander's death...
Egyptian Gods - The Complete List
The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt were an integral part of the people's everyday lives. It is not surprising then that there were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. Some of these deities' names are well known: Isis, Osiris...
Cultural links between India & the Greco-Roman world
Cyrus the Great (558-530 BCE) built the first universal empire, stretching from Greece to the Indus River. This was the famous Achaemenid Dynasty of Persia. An inscription at Naqsh-i-Rustam, the tomb of his able successor Darius I (521-486...
Map of Alexander the Great's Conquests
A map showing the route that Alexander the Great took to conquer Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria.