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The Spice Trade & the Age of Exploration
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Spice Trade & the Age of Exploration

One of the major motivating factors in the European Age of Exploration was the search for direct access to the highly lucrative Eastern spice trade. In the 15th century, spices came to Europe via the Middle East land and sea routes, and spices...
Hoxne Hoard Pepper Pot
Imageby Helen Simonsson

Hoxne Hoard Pepper Pot

Items from the Hoxne Hoard including the 7.5 cm high silver pepper pot known as the 'Empress' pepper pot. Discovered in Suffolk, in the east of England in 1992 CE, the incredible collection contains 14,865 late-4th and early-5th century...
The Eastern Trade Network of Ancient Rome
Articleby James Hancock

The Eastern Trade Network of Ancient Rome

The life of wealthy Romans was filled with exotic luxuries such as cinnamon, myrrh, pepper, or silk acquired through long-distance international trade. Goods from the Far East arrived in Rome through two corridors – the Red Sea and the Persian...
Possible Pepper Trade Route
Imageby Bunchofgrapes

Possible Pepper Trade Route

A possible trade route for pepper from India to Rome.
Trade in the Roman World
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Roman World

Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil...
Black Pepper
Imageby Franz Eugen Köhler

Black Pepper

From Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen (1897).
The Roman Hoxne Hoard
Articleby Brian Haughton

The Roman Hoxne Hoard

The Hoxne Hoard is the largest cache of late Roman gold found anywhere in the Roman Empire. Discovered by a metal detectorist in Suffolk, in the east of England in 1992 CE, the incredible collection contains 14,865 late-4th  and early-5th...
Portuguese Cochin
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Portuguese Cochin

Cochin, located on the southwest coast of India, was a Portuguese colony from 1503 to 1663. Known to the Portuguese as Cochim, it was one of several important cities on India’s Malabar Coast and a great trade centre for spices like pepper...
Food & Drink in the Mongol Empire
Articleby Mark Cartwright

Food & Drink in the Mongol Empire

The diet of the Mongols was greatly influenced by their nomadic way of life with dairy products and meat from their herds of sheep, goats, oxen, camels, and yaks dominating. Fruit, vegetables, herbs, and wild game were added thanks to foraging...
The Capture of the Treasure Ship Madre de Deus
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Capture of the Treasure Ship Madre de Deus

The treasure ship Madre de Deus (aka Madre de Dios) was a Portuguese vessel carrying hugely valuable cargo from the East Indies which was attacked and captured by a fleet of English privateers in the Azores in September 1592 CE. The ship...