Visual Timeline: European Colonization of the Americas
To navigate the timeline, click and drag it with your mouse, or click on the timeline overview on the bottom.
980 CE - 1030 CE: Norse settlement established in Newfoundland, North America, by Leif Erikson.
1453 CE: The Ottoman Empire closes the overland Silk Road trade routes between Europe and the East, initiating the European Age of Discovery.
1492 CE - 1504 CE: Christopher Columbus makes four voyages to the New World; opens the way for European colonization of the Americas.
1500 CE: Brazil is claimed for Portugal by Pedro Álvares Cabral.
1519 CE - 1521 CE: Hernán Cortés of Spain conquers the Aztec nation of Mexico.
1534 CE - 1535 CE: North American region of Canada claimed for France by Jacques Cartier.
1572 CE: The Inca of South America are conquered by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro.
1587 CE - 1590 CE: English colony of Roanoke in North America established and fails.
1607 CE - 1608 CE: English Popham colony established in present day state of Maine, North America; fails after 14 months.
1607 CE - 1699 CE: Colony of Jamestown succeeds as the first permanent English settlement in North America.
1609 CE - 1624 CE: Hudson River Valley and parts of present-day New York State and Canada claimed by Henry Hudson for the Netherlands.
1620 CE - 1691 CE: Plymouth Colony established in modern-day Massachusetts, North America; foundational colony of the later United States.
1697 CE: The conquest of the Maya Civilization completed by the Spanish conquistador Martín de Ursúa.