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Carolingian Dynasty
Definitionby Michael Griffith

Carolingian Dynasty

The Carolingian Dynasty (751-887) was a family of Frankish nobles who ruled Francia and its successor kingdoms in Western and Central Europe during the Early Middle Ages. The dynasty expanded from Francia as far as modern Italy, Spain, and...
Ancient Judean Technology
Definitionby William Brown

Ancient Judean Technology

Though the kingdom of Judah was not particularly notable in terms of technological developments, technology, nonetheless, played a central role in its rise as a political power in the region. Emerging in the 10th century BCE, it reached its...
Arabia
Definitionby Moros

Arabia

The ancient Arabians, or Arabes as they were called by the Hellenes, were a Semitic people. One must note that the Arabians were not a single people but multiple smaller kingdoms and tribes. Arabia was home to great city builders and nomads...
Harper's Songs of Ancient Egypt
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Harper's Songs of Ancient Egypt

Harper's songs were lyrics composed in ancient Egypt to be sung at funeral feasts and inscribed on monuments. They derive their name from the image which accompanies the text on tomb or chapel walls, stelae, and papyri in which a blind harper...
The Book of Jonah
Articleby Benjamin T. Laie

The Book of Jonah

The book of Jonah is the fifth book in the Christian canons and the Jewish Tanakh. It is one of 'Trei Asar' (The Twelve) prophets in the tanakh, and in Christian tradition as 'oi dodeka prophetai' or 'ton dodekapropheton' , Greek for "The...
The Armies of the Crusades
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Armies of the Crusades

The armies of the Crusades (11th-15th centuries CE), which saw Christians and Muslims struggle for control of territories in the Middle East and elsewhere, could involve over 100,000 men on either side who came from all over Europe to form...
Ecce Homo arch, a triple-arched gateway in Jerusalem
Imageby Carole Raddato

Ecce Homo arch, a triple-arched gateway in Jerusalem

The so-called Ecce Homo arch, a triple-arched gateway, built by Hadrian (2nd century CE), as an entrance to the eastern Forum of Aelia Capitolina. The central arch was flanked by two smaller arches, one of which can still be seen inside the...
German Crusade 1197-8 CE
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

German Crusade 1197-8 CE

The German Crusade of 1197 CE, also known as the 'Emperor's Crusade', was led by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI (r. 1191-1197 CE). Although the emperor died on his way east, his army did capture Beirut from the forces of the Ayyubid dynasty...
Bimbisara
Definitionby Saurav Ranjan Datta

Bimbisara

Bimbisara (c. 545/544 BCE - c. 493/492 BCE) was a king of the Magadha Kingdom who is credited with establishing imperial dominance in the Indian subcontinent. Son of a minor king called Bhattiya, he belonged to the Haryanka Dynasty, which...
The Coffin Texts
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

The Coffin Texts

The Coffin Texts (c. 2134-2040 BCE) are 1,185 spells, incantations, and other forms of religious writing inscribed on coffins to help the deceased navigate the afterlife. They include the text known as the Book of Two Ways which is the first...