Visual Timeline: Thermopylae
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650 BCE - 350 BCE: Hoplites are the major protagonists in Greek land warfare.
492 BCE: Darius I of Persia invades Greece.
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
486 BCE: Xerxes succeeds to the throne of Persia after the death of Darius I.
480 BCE: Xerxes I makes extensive preparations to invade mainland Greece by building depots, canals and a boat bridge across the Hellespont.
480 BCE: Battle of Thermopylae. 300 Spartans under King Leonidas and other Greek allies hold back the Persians led by Xerxes I for three days but are defeated.
480 BCE: The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
480 BCE: Battle of Salamis where the Greek naval fleet led by Themistocles defeats the invading armada of Xerxes I of Persia.
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
415 BCE: The Histories of Herodotus is published. The work is divided into nine chapters, each dedicated to one of the Muses.