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600 BCE: Phocaea founds the colony of Massilia.
400 BCE - 300 BCE: Founding of Lutetia.
390 BCE: "Gallic Catastrophe:" Brennus of the Senones defeats the Romans at Allia, and subsequently sacks Rome.
390 BCE: Gauls sack Rome.
334 BCE: Rome signs a peace treaty with the Senones tribe.
284 BCE: Gauls of the Insubres and Boii tribes defeat the Romans at Arretium.
283 BCE: Rome decisively defeats the Senones at Picenum.
279 BCE: Gauls attack the sanctuary of Delphi.
222 BCE: Rome conquers Cisalpine Gaul (modern-day Provence, France).
121 BCE: Gallia Narbonensis becomes a Roman province.
58 BCE - 51 BCE: Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul.
58 BCE: Caesar attacks the Helvetii while on migration and defeats them.
58 BCE: Julius Caesar invades Gaul. Roman influence on the European tribes begins in earnest.
57 BCE: A Roman army under Caesar narrowly defeats an army of Nervii, Atrebates, and Viromandui.
56 BCE: The navies of Rome and the Veneti Gauls clash resulting in a Roman victory. This is the first recorded naval battle in the Atlantic Ocean.
54 BCE - 53 BCE: Ambiorix of the Eburones tribe destroys around 9,000 Roman soldiers at Atuatuca.
53 BCE: Julius Caesar holds council of Gallic tribes in Lutetia.
52 BCE: Julius Caesar is defeated at Gergovia by Vercingetorix.
52 BCE: After becoming trapped and besieged at Alesia, Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar.
51 BCE: Caesar's siege and capture of Uxellodunum ends the Gallic War.
44 BCE: The Allobroges unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule in southern Gaul.
33 BCE: The Belgic Morini and the Celts of Aquitania unsuccessfully rise against Roman rule.
406 CE: Vandals, Suevi, and Alans invade Gaul.
486 CE: Clovis of the Franks defeats the Romans in Gaul. Founding of the Frankish kingdom.