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12000 BCE: Paleolithic seasonal camp at Howburn Farm in Biggar, Scotland, visited regularly.
10500 BCE - 7000 BCE: Mesolithic settlements established (many seasonal) in Scotland.
6500 BCE: Possibly the last time there was a land bridge between Britain and the continent.
6000 BCE: Bones and antlers used as tools, ring and cup marks on stones begin appearing in Scotland.
3500 BCE: The vast stone complex known as the Ness of Brodgar in use in Orkney.
3100 BCE: Neolithic village of Skara Brae inhabited.
3100 BCE - 2500 BCE: Megalithic Period in which majority of standing stone sites were constructed.
3000 BCE - 2800 BCE: The Neolithic chambered cairn known as Maeshowe constructed and in use.
2500 BCE: Migration of the so-called Beaker People to Scotland.
2000 BCE - 1500 BCE: Wessex culture introduces bronze working to Britain.
2000 BCE - 1400 BCE: Early Bronze Age in Scotland.
1400 BCE - 900 BCE: Middle Bronze Age in Scotland.
900 BCE - 400 BCE: Late Bronze Age in Scotland.
900 BCE: Celtic Migration begins in Europe with many Celts landing in Scotland.
55 BCE - 54 BCE: Julius Caesar invades Britain twice.
55 BCE - 54 BCE: Julius Caesar's expeditions in Britain.
55 BCE: Caesar attempts to invade Britain.
54 BCE: Caesar successfully invades Britain but withdraws to Gaul.
54 BCE - 43 CE: Roman influence grows in Britain owing to trade.
43 CE: Romans invade Britain under Aulus Plautius.
43 CE - 47 CE: Romans conquer South Britain and claim the territory as part of Roman Empire.
43 CE: Claudian invasion of Britain, includes the Legio II Augusta.
51 CE: Briton rebel leader Caratacus defeated, rebellion crushed.
60 CE - 61 CE: Boudicca's Revolt in Britain.
60 CE - 61 CE: Boudicca revolts, the Legio II Augusta does not respond to a call to arms.
75 CE - 77 CE: Romans defeat the last of the Northern tribes; Roman conquest of Britain complete.
122 CE: Construction begins on Hadrian's Wall.
142 CE: The Antonine Wall built under Antoninus Pius, north of Hadrian's Wall.
286 CE: Naval commander Carausius (Marcus Aurelius Mausaeus Valerius Carausius) declares himself emperor in Britain and Northern Gaul.
293 CE: Emperor Carausius assassinated by Allectus.
410 CE: Rome withdraws forces from Britain.
450 CE: Angles and Saxons settle Britain.
500 CE: Kingdom of Dal Riada conquers the region of Scotland.
1189 CE - 1199 CE: Reign of Richard I (The Lionheart), king of England.