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63 BCE: Octavian born Gaius Octavius Thurinus at Rome.
44 BCE: Octavian / Augustus adopted posthumously by Julius Caesar.
43 BCE - 36 BCE: Second Triumvirate: Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (official approval by the Roman Senate). Mass proscriptions including Cicero.
42 BCE: Octavian and Antony defeat Republicans under Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi (Greece).
38 BCE: Octavian amasses a naval fleet to defeat Sextus Pompey.
36 BCE: Octavian strips Lepidus of all power but Pontifex Maximus (supreme priest). Lepidus dies of old age in 12 BC.
31 BCE: Octavian uses Corcyra as a Roman naval base.
31 BCE: The Battle of Actium. Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII.
29 BCE: Octavian celebrates a triple triumph in Rome.
27 BCE: Octavian is given extraordinary powers and the name Augustus by the Roman Senate.
27 BCE - 14 CE: Reign of Augustus Caesar. Athens and the Agora restored.
27 BCE: Augustus creates the Praetorian Guard.
23 BCE: Augustus takes over most of the powers of the tribuni plebis.
19 BCE: Augustus is given supreme powers by the Roman Senate.
19 BCE: Arch of Augustus built in Rome to commemorate victory over the Parthians.
10 BCE: Statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus sculpted.
10 BCE: Augustus rebuilds the Temple of Castor and Pollux in Rome's Forum Romanum.
9 BCE: A massive altar the Ara Pacis is completed by Augustus in Rome.
2 BCE: Augustus is declared "Father of the Country".
2 BCE: Augusutus inaugurates the Temple of Mars Ultor in Rome to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE.
2 BCE: Augustus appoints two Prefects (praefectus praetorio) to command the Praetorian Guard.
6 CE: Augustus creates the aerarium militare, a treasury drawn from taxes in order to fund a professional Roman army.
6 CE: Augustus creates Rome's permanent firefighting force, the Vigiles.
13 CE: Augustus creates the cohortes urbanae in Rome to help maintain public order.
14 CE: Augustus dies at Nola of natural causes.