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543 BCE - 492 BCE: King Bimbisara begins Magadha kingdom's conquests by annexing the kingdom of Anga in eastern India.
530 BCE: Persia conquers the Indus Valley.
492 BCE - 460 BCE: Bimbisara's son and successor Ajatashatru defeats the Kosala kingdom after a long war.
484 BCE - 468 BCE: The 16-year long war between Vaishali and Magadha. The latter, under Ajatashatru, wins.
414 BCE - 396 BCE: The Magadha king Shishunaga annexes the kingdom of Avanti, ending the dynastic rule of the Pradyotas.
346 BCE - 324 BCE: Magadha's king Mahapadma Nanda makes massive conquests in north and eastern India including Kosala.
327 BCE - 326 BCE: Alexander's campaign in northern India.
326 BCE: Battle of Hydaspes where King Porus of the Paurava kingdom met a disastrous defeat at the hands of Alexander the Great.
320 BCE: Chandragupta Maurya seizes the throne of Magadhan and expands the kingdom over northern and central India.
305 BCE: Emperor Chandragupta signs a treaty with Seleucos I, establishing borders and giving the Punjab to Chandragupta in return for 500 war elephants.
297 BCE - 273 BCE: Chandragupta's son, Bindusara, rules and expands the Mauryan Empire.
260 BCE: Ashoka conquers Kalinga. The bloodshed makes him remorseful, and he turns towards non-violence.
200 BCE: Beginning of the Greco-Bactrian conquests in India.
186 BCE: Demetrios wins a decisive battle in Gandhara, beginning the Yona (or Greek era) in India.
165 BCE: The Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides invades India.
133 BCE - 123 BCE: Magadha king Vasumitra defeats the Indo-Greeks at the banks of the Indus.
100 CE: By the end of first century CE, Scythians (Sakas) manage to establish their sway in central and south-eastern India.
106 CE - 130 CE: The Satavahana king Gautamiputra Shatakarni defeats the Shakas and establishes his empire centred in present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.
127 CE - 150 CE: The Kushana emperor Kanishka conquers Kashmir, defeats Parthians, reaching the kingdom of Magadha. He crosses the Pamir mountains and defeats the Chinese under General Pan Yang and annexes Kashgar, Khotan and Yarkand.
165 CE - 195 CE: The Satavahana king Yajnashri Shatakarni uses his navy to subdue seafaring peoples on the eastern coast.
335 CE - 380 CE: Regarded as the "Indian Napoleon", the Gupta emperor Samudragupta, ruling from Magadha, subdues kings in nearly all corners of India and annexes kingdoms adjacent to Magadha.
395 CE - 400 CE: The Gupta emperor Chandragupta II Vikramaditya defeats Shakas and thereby gains access to the commercially important seaports on the western coast.
450 CE: India is invaded by the White Huns across the Hindu Kush.
455 CE - 457 CE: The Gupta emperor Skandagupta Kramaditya defeats the Huns.
484 CE - 510 CE: The Huns conquer western and central India and fight a battle with the Guptas. The Gupta general Goparaja dies in the encounter.
510 CE - 540 CE: The Huns are defeated by King Baladitya of Magadha and later by King Yashodharman of Malwa.
618 CE: The Vatapi Chalukya king Pulakeshin II defeats Emperor Harshavardhana of Sthanishvara-Kanyakubja on the banks of the Narmada river.
635 CE: The Vatapi Chalukya king Pulakeshin II destroys the navy of the Konkan Mauryas off the coast of Elephanta island (near present-day Mumbai).
642 CE: The Pallava king Narasimhavarman conquers Vatapi. Pulakeshin II dies defending his city.
712 CE: An Arab invasion takes place under Mohammad bin Qasim (695 - 715 CE). He conquers Sindh (now in Pakistan).
738 CE: The Chalukya rulers of Gujarat decisively defeat the Arabs.
750 CE - 1000 CE: A struggle for the control of most of the Indian subcontinent takes place among three empires: the Pratiharas, the Palas and the Rashtrakutas. No one power emerges triumphant.
949 CE: Battle of Takkolam in which the Cholas were utterly routed by the Rashtrakutas.
985 CE - 1014 CE: In southern India, Raja Raja I Chola conquers parts of the present-day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, Karnataka (north-western areas), northern Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
991 CE: Turkic forces under Sultan Sabuktigin defeat a confederacy of north Indian rulers in Jalalabad (present-day Afghanistan).
994 CE: Raja Raja I Chola destroys the fleet of the Later Chera/Kulashekhara king Bhaskara Ravivarman I off Kandalur Salai (modern day Valiasala).
1008 CE: Turkic forces under Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni defeat a confederacy of north Indian rulers at Waihind (near Peshawar, present-day Pakistan).
1014 CE - 1044 CE: Rajendra I Chola completes the conquests of present-day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. His armies march across north India making conquests, and his navy conquers areas in Southeast Asia.
1052 CE: Battle of Koppam where the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani kill the Chola King Rajadhiraja on his elephant. His younger brother Prince Rajendra II gets crowned on the battlefield, assumes command and defeats the enemy.
1192 CE: Battle of Tarain when, effectively employing horse archers, the Turkic armies of Shahabuddin Mohammad of Ghur destroy the Rajput armies of Prithviraja III Chauhan.