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1081 CE - 1118 CE: Reign of Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
1088 CE - 1099 CE: Reign of Pope Urban II.
1095 CE - 1102 CE: The First Crusade is formed to recapture Jerusalem for Christendom. It is successful in its primary aim.
1095 CE: Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos appeals to the west for aid against the Seljuks.
1095 CE: At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II calls for the First Crusade to form and retake Jerusalem for Christendom.
1096 CE: The people's army led by Peter the Hermit departs for Constantinople during the First Crusade.
1096 CE: The "People's Crusade" led by Peter the Hermit is wiped out by a Seljuk army near Nicaea.
1096 CE: The 'People's Crusade' is wiped out near Nicaea by a Seljuk army.
1097 CE: The First Crusaders arrive at Constantinople.
1097 CE: The First Crusaders capture Nicaea.
1097 CE: A Crusader army wins a great victory against a Muslim army at Dorylaion.
1098 CE: Baldwin of Boulogne takes control of Edessa and the County of Edessa is formed, one of four Crusader-created states in the Levant.
1098 CE: The First Crusaders capture Antioch after an 8-month siege.
1098 CE: The Crusaders defeat a large Muslim army sent to recapture Antioch.
1099 CE: The Crusader army arrives at the walls of Jerusalem, the objective of the First Crusade.
1099 CE: A small fleet of Genoese and English ships arrives at Jaffa bringing essential supplies for siege weapons to the First Crusaders at Jerusalem.
1099 CE: Siege towers are built by the First Crusaders to better attack Jerusalem.
1099 CE: Jerusalem is captured during the First Crusade.
1099 CE: A Muslim army is sent to recapture Jerusalem but is defeated by the Crusaders at the battle of Ascalon.
1099 CE: The Crusader state, the Kingdom of Jerusalem is created.
1101 CE: Caesarea is captured by the Crusaders.
1101 CE: Acre is captured by the Crusaders.
1113 CE: The Knights Hospitaller are recognised as a religious order by Pope Paschal II.
1119 CE: Foundation of the military order the Knights Templar.
1130 CE: Albert of Achen's account of the First Crusade, the 'Jerusalem History", is written based on soldiers accounts.
1144 CE: The Muslim Seljuk Turks, led by Imad ad-Din Zangi, capture Edessa.
1145 CE: Pope Eugenius III calls for the Second Crusade.
1146 CE: Joscelin II's attempt to retake Edessa fails and the city is sacked by Nur ad-Din.
1147 CE - 1149 CE: The Second Crusade is launched to recapture Edessa for Christendom. It is not successful.
1147 CE - 1148 CE: Campaigns against pagans in the Baltic are led by Germanic and Danish nobles during the Second Crusade.
1147 CE: The Knights Templar's first military engagement during the Second Crusade.
1147 CE: The siege of Lisbon during the Second Crusade.
1147 CE: Dobin and Malchow in northeast Germany are captured during the Second Crusade.
1147 CE: The armies of the Second Crusade arrive in Constantinople.
1147 CE: Almeria in northern Spain is captured from the Moors during the Second Crusade.
1147 CE: The capture of Lisbon by the Second Crusaders.
1147 CE: At Dorylaion a force of Muslim Seljuk Turks attacks an army led by Conrad III during the Second Crusade.
1147 CE: An army led by Louis VII defeats a Seljuk army in Asia Minor during the Second Crusade.
1148 CE: An army led by Louis VII is defeated by the Seljuks as it crosses the Cadmus Mountains during the Second Crusade.
1148 CE: The unsuccessful siege of Damascus during the Second Crusade.
1148 CE: Conrad III, one of the leaders of the Second Crusade, returns to Europe.
1148 CE: Tortosa in eastern Spain is captured from the Moors during the Second Crusade.
1149 CE: The Muslim Seljuk leader Nur al-Din captures Crusader-held Antioch.
1149 CE: A new Church of the Holy Sepulchre is completed in Jerusalem.
1174 CE - 1193 CE: Reign of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
1186 CE - 1192 CE: Guy of Lusignan reigns as king of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1187 CE: Saladin defeats the Franks army at the Battle of Hattin.
1187 CE: Saladin captures Jerusalem.
1187 CE: Pope Gregory VIII calls for the Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem.
1188 CE: Saladin besieges the Knights Hospitaller castle of Krak des Chevaliers but withdraws to meet the Third Crusade.
1189 CE - 1192 CE: The Third Crusade is formed with the aim of recapturing Jerusalem for Christendom. Although some cities were recaptured, Jerusalem was not one of them.
1189 CE - 1191 CE: The siege of Acre during the Third Crusade.
1190 CE: Richard I of England captures Messina on Sicily during the Third Crusade.
1190 CE: Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, drowns in the Seraph River in Cilicia on his way to the Middle East during the Third Crusade.
1191 CE: Richard I of England captures Cyprus during the Third Crusade.
1191 CE: The Crusader armies of Philip II of France and Richard I of England arrive at the siege of Acre.
1191 CE: Richard I of England captures Acre during the Third Crusade.
1191 CE: Philip II leaves Acre and returns to France during the Third Crusade.
1191 CE: Richard I of England orders the execution of 2,500 Muslim prisoners after the siege of Acre during the Third Crusade.
1191 CE: Richard I of England defeats Saladin's army at Arsuf during the Third Crusade.
1192 CE: The Crusader army led by Richard I of England arrives within sight of Jerusalem but decides not to attack for fear of a counter-attack by Saladin.
1192 CE: Saladin takes Jaffa during the Third Crusade.
1192 CE: Richard I of England retakes Jaffa from Saladin during the Third Crusade.
1192 CE: Richard I of England, returning home from the Third Crusade is shipwrecked and eventually imprisoned by the German emperor Henry VI.
1193 CE: Death of Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria.
1197 CE - 1198 CE: The German Crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.
1197 CE: A Crusade army captures Beirut.
1197 CE: A Crusade army begins the siege of Toron.
1198 CE: A Crusade army abandons the siege of Toron on hearing of the death of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI.
1198 CE: The Order of Teutonic Knights is officially sanctioned by Pope Innocent III.
1198 CE: Pope Innocent III calls for the Fourth Crusade to liberate Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
1201 CE: Marquis Boniface of Montferrat is selected to lead the Fourth Crusade.
1202 CE - 1204 CE: The Fourth Crusade is formed to recapture Jerusalem for Christendom. Instead, the Crusaders attack Constantinople.
1202 CE: The Fourth Crusade fleet leaves Venice.
1202 CE: The armies of the Fourth Crusade capture Christian Zara on the Dalmatian coast.
1203 CE: A small force of Crusader knights arrives in the Middle East during the Fourth Crusade.
1203 CE: The army of the Fourth Crusade arrives at Constantinople.
1204 CE: Constantinople is sacked by the Fourth Crusaders.
1204 CE: Count Baldwin of Flanders is made the first Latin Emperor of Constantinople.
1209 CE - 1229 CE: The Albigensian Crusade against Cathars heretics in southern France.
1212 CE: The Children's Crusade when Nicholas of Cologne leads a children's army to Jerusalem but many die of hunger crossing the Italian Alps and the Pope tells them to go home.
1215 CE: Pope Innocent III calls for the Fifth Crusade.
1217 CE - 1221 CE: The Fifth Crusade is formed to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt. It is not particularly successful.
1218 CE: The Château Pèlerin ("Pilgrim Castle") is built in Israel by the Knights Templar.
1218 CE: The army of the Fifth Crusade arrives in Egypt.
1218 CE - 1219 CE: Damietta in Egypt is attacked and conquered after a long siege during the Fifth Crusade.
1221 CE: After a failed attack on the Sultan of Egypt's army at Mansourah, hit by floods from the river Nile and with another two Muslim armies blocking their escape, the army of the Fifth Crusade surrenders.
1221 CE: The Fifth Crusaders surrender Damietta.
1228 CE - 1229 CE: The Sixth Crusade is formed by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. It achieves through diplomacy Christian control of Jerusalem.
1228 CE: Frederick II arrives in the Levant on the Sixth Crusade.
1229 CE: The Treaty of Jaffa is signed between Frederick II and al-Kamil to hand over Jerusalem to Christian rule.
1244 CE: The Teutonic Order adopts a white surcoat and black cross insignia for all knights.
1244 CE: An army of the Ayyubid dynasty defeats a large Latin army at the battle of La Forbie (Harbiya) in Gaza.
1244 CE: Louis IX, king of France, takes up the cross and vows to embark on a Crusade.
1245 CE - 1249 CE: Al-Salih is the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, leader of the Ayyubid Dynasty.
1247 CE: Al-Salih, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, captures Ascalon from the Franks.
1248 CE - 1254 CE: The Seventh Crusade is formed to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa and Egypt. Led by Louis IX, it is not successful.
1248 CE: The army of the Seventh Crusade sets sail for Egypt from Aigues Mortes in Southern France.
1249 CE: The army of the Seventh Crusade lands in Egypt.
1249 CE: The army of the Seventh Crusade captures Damietta in Egypt.
1249 CE: The army of the Seventh Crusade marches from Damietta to Cairo.
1250 CE: The army of the Seventh Crusade is defeated at Mansourah. Louis IX is captured.
1250 CE: Louis IX, leader of the Seventh Crusade, is released by his captors, the Ayyubid Dynasty.
1270 CE: The Eighth Crusade is formed to attack Muslim-held cities in North Africa. Led by Louis IX, it is not successful.
1270 CE: The army of the Eighth Crusade lands at Tunis in North Africa.
1270 CE: Louis IX dies of dysentery at Tunis during the Eighth Crusade, which is, consequently, abandoned.
1270 CE: Charles of Anjou leads the withdrawal of the Eighth Crusade army from Tunis to Sicily. Many ships are lost in a storm.
1291 CE: With the fall of Acre, the Crusader States, including the Kingdom of Jerusalem, are absorbed into the Mamluk Sultanate.
1291 CE: Acre, the last Christian stronghold in the Middle East, falls to the Mamluks.
1312 CE: Pope Clement V officially abolishes the medieval military order the Knights Templar.
1396 CE: The Battle of Nicopolis, aka the Nicopolis Crusade, where a western Christian army is defeated by the Ottoman Turks.