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580 BCE - 376 BCE: Carthage and Greece fight for dominance in Sicily.
539 BCE: Etruscan & Carthaginian alliance expels the Greeks from Corsica.
535 BCE: Battle of Alalia. Carthaginian navy, in alliance with Etruscans, defeated Greek ships off the island of Corsica.
500 BCE: Carthage expands into southern Spain.
480 BCE: Tyrant of Syracuse Gelon defeats the Carthaginians at the battle of Himera.
406 BCE: Agrigento is attacked and destroyed by Carthage.
341 BCE: Timoleon defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Crimisus in Sicily.
338 BCE: Timoleon agrees a peace treaty with Carthage over their control of Sicily.
311 BCE: A Carthaginian army defeats Agathocles of Syracuse near Gela, Sicily.
310 BCE: Agathocles of Syracuse lands an army of 14,000 in North Africa.
309 BCE: Syracuse defeats a Carthaginian army in Sicily and kills their general Hamilcar.
307 BCE: Carthage defeats the army of Agathocles of Syracuse led by Archagathus while Agathocles is in Sicily.
306 BCE: Carthage and Agathocles of Syracuse sign a peace treaty and divide Sicily between them.
264 BCE - 241 BCE: First Punic War. Carthage cedes Sicily to Rome.
260 BCE: First Roman naval victory against Carthage off Mylae in the First Punic War.
255 BCE: A Carthaginain army led by the mercenary Spartan commander Xanthippus defeats two Roman legions near Tunis during the First Punic War.
250 BCE: A Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal is defeated by Roman consul Metellus near Palermo in the First Punic War.
247 BCE: Hamilcar Barca raids southern Italy and then lands on Sicily during the First Punic War.
237 BCE: Hamilcar Barca arrives in southern Spain to expand Carthage's interests there. He makes his base at Gades and founds Acra Leuce.
229 BCE: Hasdrubal takes command of Carthage's armies in Spain.
221 BCE: Hannibal takes command of Carthage's armies in Spain.
219 BCE: Hannibal crosses the Ebro river in Spain and sacks the city of Saguntum, Rome's ally, sparking off the Second Punic War.
218 BCE - 201 BCE: Second Punic War.
218 BCE: Hannibal leaves Spain to cross the Pyrenees and Alps into Italy.
218 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Ticinus.
218 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Trebia.
217 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Lake Trasimene.
216 BCE: "Hannibal ante portas." Hannibal directly threatens the city of Rome, but cannot advance due to lack of supplies and reinforcements.
216 BCE: Hannibal wins the battle of Cannae, the worst defeat in Roman history.
215 BCE: A Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal is defeated at the battle of Ibera in Spain.
212 BCE: A Carthaginian army is defeated in Sicily by a Roman army led by Marcellus. Syracuse falls to Rome who now control the island.
209 BCE: Scipio Africanus captures the Carthaginian base and treasury Carthago Nova in southern Spain.
207 BCE: Hannibal, harassed by Roman forces, is reduced to controlling only Bruttium in southern Italy.
207 BCE: Rome defeats a Carthaginian army at the battle of Metaurus.
206 BCE - 205 BCE: The Romans conquer Gades. End of the Carthaginian presence on the Iberian Peninsula.
206 BCE: Scipio Africanus wins the battle of Ilipa in Spain.
204 BCE - 203 BCE: Scipio Africanus wins two battles and besieges Utica in North Africa.
203 BCE: Carthaginian commander Mago is unable to join forces with Hannibal and his army is defeated in Cisalpine Gaul.
203 BCE: Scipio Africanus attacks the two camps of Syphax and Gisgo in North Africa and destroys their armies.
203 BCE: Scipio Africanus defeats a Carthaginian army led by Hasdrubal in North Africa.
203 BCE: Hannibal is recalled from Italy to defend Carthage against Scipio Africanus.
202 BCE: Battle of Zama: Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal, ending the Second Punic War.
150 BCE: A Carthaginian army attacks Numidia, breaking the peace treaty agreed with Rome and sparking the Third Punic War.
149 BCE - 146 BCE: Third Punic War.
149 BCE: Rome sends an army of 80,000 infantry and 4,000 cavalry to attack Carthage.
147 BCE: Scipio Africanus the Younger takes over command of the siege of Carthage and builds a mole to block its harbour.
146 BCE: Scipio Africanus the Younger sacks Carthage and enslaves its population.