Visual Timeline: Athens

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7000 BCE 6500 BCE 6000 BCE 5500 BCE 5000 BCE 4500 BCE 4000 BCE 3500 BCE 3000 BCE 2500 BCE 2000 BCE 1500 BCE 1000 BCE 500 BCE 0 CE  
 
7000 BCE - 5000 BCE: Human habitation on the Acropolis and around the Agora of Athens continues from Neolithic Period.
 
1700 BCE - 1100 BCE: Mycenaean Period. Agora established at Athens.
 
1100 BCE - 600 BCE: Iron Age Development, public buildings erected at the Agora in Athens.
 
683 BCE - 682 BCE: List of annual archons at Athens begins.
 
600 BCE - 480 BCE: Attic black-figure pottery dominates the greek ceramic market.
 
 
600 BCE - 550 BCE: The Dionysia becomes a major Athenian festival in honour of Dionysos.
 
600 BCE: The Eleusinian Mysteries become part of the official Athenian religious calendar.
 
 
594 BCE - 593 BCE: In Athens the archon Solon lays the foundations for democracy.
 
 
560 BCE: Pisistratos becomes tyrant in Athens for the first time.
 
 
546 BCE: Pisistratus lands his Argive mercenary force at Marathon and with victory at Pallene establishes himself once again as tyrant of Athens.
 
 
540 BCE: Athens removes and prohibits further burials on Delos to purify the sacred island.
 
525 BCE: Cleisthenes is made archon at Athens.
 
524 BCE - 460 BCE: Life of Athenian general and statesman Themistocles.
 
514 BCE: Fall of the Peisistratid tyranny in Athens.
 
 
514 BCE: The tyrant of Athens Hipparchos is killed by Harmodios and Aristogeiton - the 'tyrannicides'.
 
 
508 BCE: Reforms by Cleisthenes establishes democracy in Athens.
 
508 BCE: According to Aristotle, the institution of ostracism is introduced in Athens under Cleisthenes.
 
495 BCE: Birth of Pericles.
 
493 BCE: The first fortifications are constructed at Athens' port of Piraeus.
 
 
493 BCE: Themistocles is made archon in Athens.
 
 
490 BCE - 480 BCE: A 1.4m tall Iris or Nike sculpture is erected on the acropolis of Athens in memory of the general Kallimachos, killed in the battle of Marathon.
 
 
490 BCE: Athens builds a treasury at Delphi following their victory at Marathon against Persia.
 
490 BCE: A combined force of Greek hoplites defeat the Persians at Marathon.
 
487 BCE - 486 BCE: Archons begin to be appointed by lot in Athens.
 
483 BCE: Themistocles persuades the Athenians to significantly expand their fleet, which saves them at Salamis and becomes their source of power.
 
 
480 BCE: Sack of Athens by the Persians under Xerxes. The Agora is destroyed.
 
480 BCE: The fortifications of Piraeus instigated by Themistocles are completed.
 
480 BCE: The indecisive battle of Artemision between the Greek and Persian fleets of Xerxes I. The Greeks withdraw to Salamis.
 
 
479 BCE: Xerxes' Persian forces are defeated by Greek forces at Plataea effectively ending Persia's imperial ambitions in Greece.
 
479 BCE - 432 CE: The period of Thucydides' Pentecontaetia in ancient Greece.
 
478 BCE - 404 BCE: The Delian League in Greece, led by Athens.
 
 
478 BCE - 454 BCE: The treasury of the Delian League is kept on Delos until its removal to Athens.
 
 
476 BCE - 463 BCE: Delian League operations are led by Athenian commander Cimon
 
 
475 BCE: Athenian general Cimon drives the Dolopian pirates out of the Aegean island of Scyros.
 
 
475 BCE: Cimon captures Eion in Thrace for Athens.
 
 
471 BCE: The general and statesman Themistocles is voted in an ostracism and exiled from Athens.
 
470 BCE: Statue group of Harmodius and Aristogiton in Athens.
 
 
469 BCE - 399 BCE: Life of Socrates.
 
 
466 BCE: Athenian general Cimon twice defeats the Persians at Eurymedon on the southern coast of Asia Minor.
 
465 BCE: Construction of the Long Walls fortifications joining Athens to the port of Piraeus are begun.
 
 
465 BCE - 463 BCE: Athenian general Cimon conquers Chersonesus in Thrace and the north-Aegean island of Thasos.
 
 
462 BCE - 458 BCE: Pericles introduces democratic institutions in Athens.
 
462 BCE - 461 BCE: Radicalisation of democracy in Athens; Cimon exiled, Pericles comes to exercise influence.
 
461 BCE - 429 BCE: Pericles is ruler of Athens.
 
461 BCE: Cimon is voted in an ostracism in Athens and exiled from the city.
 
460 BCE - 445 BCE: First Peloponnesian War.
 
460 BCE - 403 BCE: Life of Critias, one of the Thirty Tyrants of Athens.
 
460 BCE - 429 BCE: The Age of Pericles. Athenian Agora is rebuilt, construction of Parthenon.
 
460 BCE - 320 CE: Period of full and direct citizen democracy in Athens.
 
 
457 BCE: Hegemony of Athens over central Greece.
 
 
457 BCE: Sparta wins the battle of Tanagra during the 1st Peloponnesian War with Athens.
 
 
454 BCE: The Athenians move the treasury of the Delian League from Delos to Athens.
 
 
453 BCE: Pericles erects trophy at Nemea after Athenian victory over the Sikyonians.
 
451 BCE - 403 CE: Life of Athenian statesman and general Alcibiades.
 
 
450 BCE: Athenian general Cimon dies on Cyprus fighting the Persians.
 
 
449 BCE: The Hephaisteion, temple to Athena & Hephaistos, built in Athens.
 
447 BCE - 432 BCE: The construction of the Parthenon in Athens by the architects Iktinos and Kallikrates under the direction of Phidias.
 
447 BCE: Reconstruction and creation of the Acropolis of the Classical Period begins under Pericles' leadership.
 
446 BCE: The Middle Wall fortifications are added to the Long Walls which connect Athens and the port of Piraeus.
 
443 BCE: Thurii in Magna Graecia founded by Athenian settlers.
 
 
438 BCE: The cult statue of Athena Parthenos is dedicated in the Parthenon of Athens.
 
 
437 BCE - 431 BCE: The Propylaea is constructed on the Acropolis of Athens under the supervision of Mnesicles.
 
 
433 BCE: Alliance between Athens and Corcyra.
 
 
433 BCE: A naval battle between the victorious combined forces of Corcyra and Athens against Corinth.
 
 
432 BCE: Sparta declares that Athens has broken the Thirty Year Peace and prepares for war.
 
431 BCE: Athens invades Megara.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The Peloponnesian Wars which leave Athens defeated and the Agora damaged.
 
 
431 BCE - 404 BCE: The 2nd Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta (the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League) which involved all of Greece.
 
 
430 BCE - 354 BCE: Life of Xenophon of Athens.
 
430 BCE: The plague decimates Athens.
 
429 BCE: Athens successfully campaigns in the Corinthian Gulf regions during the Peloponnesian War.
 
429 BCE: Following attacks by Sparta, fortifications at the port of Piraeus are extended to reduce the width of the harbour entrances.
 
 
427 BCE - 347 BCE: Life of Plato.
 
425 BCE: Pylos campaign, under Cleon and Demosthenes' command Athens defeats Sparta at Pylos.
 
 
425 BCE - 420 BCE: The Temple dedicated to Athena Nike is constructed on the acropolis of Athens.
 
424 BCE: A force of Athenian peltasts defeat Spartan hoplites on Sphaktria in the Peloponnese.
 
 
424 BCE: The Athenian expeditions against Megara and Boeotia are a failure with a particularly heavy defeat near Delion.
 
422 BCE: Spartan general Brasidas employs Myrkinian and Chalkidian peltasts to defeat a force of Athenian hoplites at Amphipolis.
 
 
421 BCE - 406 BCE: The Erechtheion of Athens acropolis is constructed with six Caryatids in the south porch.
 
417 BCE: In the last recorded ostracism the demagogue Hyperbolos is exiled from Athens.
 
 
415 BCE: The Histories of Herodotus is published. The work is divided into nine chapters, each dedicated to one of the Muses.
 
 
415 BCE - 413 BCE: Athenian expedition to attack Syracuse.
 
 
415 BCE: Alcibiades persuades the Athenian assembly to send a military expedition to Sicily.
 
414 BCE: Athens constructs fortifications at Sounion.
 
 
413 BCE: On the advice of Alcibiades the Spartans take over the Athenian-held fort of Dekeleia.
 
 
413 BCE: The Athenian expedition in Sicily ends in disastrous defeat and the Athenian generals Nicias and Demosthenes are executed.
 
 
411 BCE: The oligarchy of the 400 take over the democracy in Athens and in a matter of months is replaced by an oligarchy of 5000.
 
 
410 BCE: Alcibiades leads the Athenian fleet to victory over Sparta at Cyzicus.
 
 
407 BCE: Alcibiades returns to Athens in triumph and is made strategos autokrater.
 
 
407 BCE: The Athenian fleet is defeated by Lysander of Sparta at Notium.
 
405 BCE: Athens grants Athenian citizenship to the population of Samos.
 
 
404 BCE: End of the Peloponnesian war, Athens defeated By Sparta at Aigospotamoi, Rule of the Thirty Tyrants in Athens.
 
 
404 BCE: Spartan general Lysander attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus destroying parts of the Long Wall fortifications.
 
403 BCE: Restoration of the democracy in Athens, death of the tyrant Critias.
 
402 BCE - 318 BCE: Life of Athenian statesman and general Phocion.
 
 
395 BCE - 386 BCE: The Corinthian Wars between Sparta and an alliance of Athens, Corinth, Argos, Boeotia and Thebes.
 
390 BCE: Athenian leader Iphikrates employs peltasts to defeat Spartan hoplites at Lechaion near Corinth.
 
 
387 BCE: Sparta attacks the Athenian port of Piraeus.
 
 
384 BCE - 322 BCE: Life of Aristotle.
 
384 BCE - 322 CE: Life of Athenian statesman Demosthenes.
 
 
380 BCE: Plato founds his Academy outside of Athens.
 
366 BCE: Athens regains control of Samos from Sparta.
 
362 BCE: Indecisive Battle of Matinea where Thebes fought against Sparta and Athens. Theban general Epaminondas is killed.
 
 
354 BCE: Xenophon dies at Athens or Corinth.
 
338 BCE: Philip of Macedonia defeats the Greek allied forces of Athens, Thebes and Corinth in the Battle of Chaironeia.
 
338 BCE: The Battle of Charonea gives Athens to the Macedonian victors. Agora takes on Macedonian characteristics.
 
 
307 BCE: Demetrius I frees Athens from the tyrant Demetrius of Phaleron.
 
 
295 BCE: Demetrius I campaigns in central Greece, removes the tyrant Lachares from Athens and defeats Sparta.
 
 
166 BCE: Rome gives dominion over the Cyclades to Athens.
 
 
166 BCE: Rome puts Delos under the jurisdiction of Athens and makes the island a free port.
 
159 BCE - 138 BCE: King Attalos II of Pergamon builds the great Stoa in the Agora of Athens.
 
 
86 BCE: The Roman general Sulla sacks Athens and the port of Piraeus.
 
 
86 BCE: Siege of Athens by the Roman general Sulla. Agora is destroyed.
 
117 CE - 138 CE: Rule of the Roman Emperor Hadrian who supports great building projects in and around the Agora of Athens.
 
267 CE: The Goths sack Athens, Corinth, Sparta, and Argos.
 
267 CE: Agora of Athens burned by invading Herulians.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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