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The Ideology of the Holy Roman Empire
Article

The Ideology of the Holy Roman Empire

"The Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire," wrote Voltaire, and this interpretation still dominates the popular imagination...
Carrack
Definition

Carrack

The carrack (nao in Spanish, nau in Portuguese, and nef in French) was a type of large sailing vessel used for exploration, to carry cargo and as a...
The Separation of Christianity from Judaism
Article

The Separation of Christianity from Judaism

In the mid-2nd century CE, Christianity began a gradual process of identity-formation that would lead to the creation of a separate, independent religion...
Portuguese Macao
Definition

Portuguese Macao

Macao (Macau) is located on a peninsula in the estuary of the Pearl River delta in southeast China and it was a Portuguese colonial settlement from...
Sugar & the Rise of the Plantation System
Article

Sugar & the Rise of the Plantation System

From a humble beginning as a sweet treat grown in gardens, sugar cane cultivation became an economic powerhouse, and the growing demand for sugar stimulated...
Caravel
Definition

Caravel

The caravel (caravela in Spanish and Portuguese), was a type of medium-sized ship which, with its low draught and lateen or triangular sails, made it...
Sacred Band of Thebes
Definition

Sacred Band of Thebes

The Sacred Band of Thebes was an elite unit of the Theban army comprised of 150 gay male couples totaling 300 men. They were formed under the leadership...
A Weekend on the Isle of Skye, Scotland
Article

A Weekend on the Isle of Skye, Scotland

The Isle of Skye, Scotland, is a land of myth, legend, and swirling mists that easily transport a visitor through time. The history of the island goes...
Ferdinand Magellan
Definition

Ferdinand Magellan

Ferdinand Magellan, or Fernão de Magalhães (c. 1480-1521), was a Portuguese mariner whose expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe in 1519-22...
Matariki
Definition

Matariki

The Maori people of Aotearoa (New Zealand) have long observed the heliacal (pre-dawn) rising of the star cluster commonly known throughout the world...
Agoge, the Spartan Education Program
Article

Agoge, the Spartan Education Program

The agoge was the ancient Spartan education program, which trained male youths in the art of war. The word means "raising" in the sense of raising livestock...
Legio V Alaudae
Definition

Legio V Alaudae

Legio V Alaudae, referenced in early accounts only as the "Fifth", was one of the many legions of the Roman army that helped Julius Caesar (100-44 BCE...